Questionamentos e Discussões Essenciais Acerca de um Possível Sistema de Escrita para o Hunsrückisch Brasileiro

Questionamentos e Discussões Essenciais Acerca de um Possível Sistema de Escrita para o Hunsrückisch Brasileiro

Marco Aurelio Schaumloeffel

 

Artigo publicado na revista Trama, v. 14, n. 31 (2018), p. 109-121, e-ISSN 1981-4674

 

Link para a publicação:

http://e-revista.unioeste.br/index.php/trama/article/view/17600/12408

Artigo em arquivo PDF para download

Errata:  a formatação do artigo provavelmente causou uma mistura/um corte nas palavras na seguinte passagem:

“Assim, há duas formas de escrita e algumas diferenças no Papiamentu, conforme o ilustrado através dos exemplos de palavras apresentadas abaixo:
Curaçao e Bonaire: étiko, kas, piská, Papiamentu, kombinashon, lèternan, ferfdó
Aruba: etico, cas, pisca, Papiamento, combinacion, letranan, pintor
Português: ético, casa, peixe, Papiamentu(o), combinação, cartas, pintor”

Original do artigo submetido pode ser lido aqui.

RESUMO: O objetivo deste trabalho é discutir basilarmente por que e se o Hunsrückisch brasileiro, a língua falada por grande parte dos descendentes de alemães no Brasil, deve ter um sistema de escrita estabelecido. Com base nestas questões, as vantagens e desvantagens de um eventual estabelecimento de um sistema de escrita serão analisados e ponderações feitas sobre o que este sistema, no contexto da complexidade e da presença de muitas variedades, imprescindivelmente deve conter e levar em conta. Serão trazidos exemplos de dois contextos completamente diferentes, nomeadamente da Suíça e das Ilhas ABC (Aruba, Bonaire e Curaçao, no Caribe), onde são falados, respectivamente, o Alemão suíço e o Papiamentu, com o propósito de verificar como estes casos podem apontar para possíveis caminhos e soluções para estas questões. Além disso, duas propostas já existentes de sistemas de escrita para o Hunsrückisch brasileiro serão analisadas e testadas quanto a sua funcionalidade e aplicabilidade.

 PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Hunsrückisch brasileiro, Alemão no Brasil, sistema de escrita, ortografia, variedades linguísticas

 

ABSTRACT: The objective of this article is to fundamentally discuss why and if Brazilian Hunsrückisch, the language spoken by the majority of the German descendants in Brazil, should have an established writing system. Based on these questions, the advantages and disadvantages of a prospective establishment of a writing system will be analysed and considerations will be made about what this system should necessarily contain and regard. Examples from two completely different contexts will be presented, namely from Switzerland and the ABC Islands (Aruba, Bonaire and Curaçao in the Caribbean) where Swiss German and Papiamentu are respectively spoken, in order to verify how those cases can point to possible ways and solutions to these questions. Apart from that, two already existing proposals of writing systems for Brazilian Hunsrückisch will be analysed and tested for their functionality and applicability.  

 KEYWORDS: Brazilian Hunsrückisch, German in Brazil, writing system, orthography, linguistic varieties

Tabom: O Brasil longe do Brasil – Tabom: Brazil away from Brazil

Entrevista concedida à revista Atlântico / Interview for Atlantico Magazine

Instituto Brasil África / Brazil Africa Institute

Tabom: O Brasil longe do Brasil – Tabom: Brazil away from Brazil. Atlantico. Year 3. Number 11. July 2017. Pages 46-50. ISSN 2447-8016. Fortaleza, Brazil.

 

Link para todas as revistas/Link to all magazines: https://ibraf.org/atlantico-magazine/

Link para esta edição / Link to this edition: https://ibraf.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/atlantico11.pdf

 

 

 

Why do Papiamento and a Creole Language Spoken in Malaysia have so many similarities?

Why do Papiamento and a Creole Language Spoken in Malaysia have so many similarities?

Two presentations at the Biblioteca Nacional Aruba, Oranjestad, Aruba

Lecture in the series “Lifelong Learninig – Academic Lectures” – May, 17 2016

Diario, 09 May 2016, p. 44

IMG-20160509-WA0000

Invitation

IMG-20160510-WA0002

Diario, 2 June 2016, p. 23

IMG-20160603-WA0000

Some pictures of the two events:

2016-05-20 01.43.35 2016-05-22 14.33.24
2016-05-20 01.43.42 2016-05-22 14.32.46
2016-05-22 14.35.54 2016-05-22 14.33.46
2016-05-22 14.33.09

Abstract

Why do Papiamento and a Creole Language Spoken in Malaysia have so many similarities?

The aim of this presentation is to make relevant considerations on the origin of Papiamento (PA). The discussion on the origins of PA still is object of controversy. Some scholars classify it as a creole language of Spanish origins and others as a creole of Portuguese origins. Recent historical and linguistic evidence suggests that PA owes its origins to the West African Portuguese creoles (cf. Jacobs, Origins of a Creole 2012).

In this presentation, the author provides further evidence in favour of the Portuguese origins of PA by doing an investigation on the historical and linguistic links existing between PA and Papiá Kristang (PK). Historical links are important, but linguistic data is the most reliable evidence of possible genetic ties between creoles. It may seem strange to compare a creole language that developed in Southeast Asia with a creole spoken in former Dutch colonies in the Caribbean, since they are worlds apart. PK, a Portuguese creole spoken in Malacca, Malaysia, is not directly linked to the West African Portuguese creoles like PA, but is a Portuguese creole undoubtedly unrelated to Spanish. This fact turns PK into an interesting tool of comparison to verify possible similarities and correspondences in the PA and the PK grammatical categories, and to establish if PA carries basic Portuguese creole features. The analysis is based on linguistic data from grammars, descriptions and texts in PA and in PK. The focus are grammatical similarities and correspondences that are observed in the structure of both creoles, and the implications these have to determine a possible common origin.

To achieve this objective, a comparison of important linguistic features in the two languages will be made. The evidence suggests that the origins of PA cannot be completely analysed and understood if vital historical and linguistic links to the Portuguese language are ignored. It remains open to discussion whether these ties were solely formed via West Africa and the Portuguese creoles spoken there or not. However, this presentation intends to discard any hypothesis that excludes the fundamental role Portuguese and Portuguese creoles played in the formation of PA.

 

Por que dizer “sich aposentieren” no Hunsrückisch brasileiro está correto?

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Artigo publicado

Por que dizer “sich aposentieren” no Hunsrückisch brasileiro está correto?

Revista Projekt, número 52, Dezembro de 2014 – ISSN 1517-9281

Artigo em pdf

Revista completa

Por que dizer “sich aposentieren” no Hunsrückisch brasileiro está correto?

Marco Aurelio Schaumloeffel, University of the West Indies, Barbados

Introdução

Você acharia graça se alguém usasse a palavra Fenster em Hochdeutsch (alemão-padrão) ou a palavra armazém em português? Provavelmente não, por considerá-las palavras que fazem parte do léxico, do vocabulário “normal” destas línguas. Contudo muitos acham graça e até mesmo consideram erro crasso alguém usar palavras provenientes do português nas variantes dos dialetos Hunsrückisch[1] falados no Brasil. Taxam o Hunsrückisch de “alemão-de-capoeira”, “língua de colono pobre e coitado”, “coisa de ignorante”, “língua de gente que não sabe falar direito”, “alemão errado”, para me restringir a apenas alguns dos termos que já ouvi pessoalmente.

O objetivo deste curto artigo é esclarecer, desmistificar e explicar de forma simples os motivos pelos quais palavras do português são emprestadas, incorporadas e usadas na língua que muitos falam como sua língua materna, especialmente no sul do Brasil.

O Empréstimo Linguístico

As afirmações acima sobre o Hunsrückisch brasileiro não passam de preconceito linguístico, devido ao status social a ele conferido ao longo dos anos. O preconceito linguístico é “mais precisamente o julgamento depreciativo, desrespeitoso, jocoso e, consequentemente, humilhante da fala do outro (embora preconceito sobre a própria fala também exista)” (Scherre 2008, p.12). Estas afirmações acerca do Hunsrückisch brasileiro não possuem, contudo, nenhuma base lógica ou correta do ponto de vista científico dos estudos em Linguística. Cabe aos estudiosos das línguas a análise e a contextualização de fenômenos que ocorrem dentro dos mais diversos aspectos da gramática e do vocabulário. Para que entendamos melhor o fenômeno do uso de palavras do português no Hunsrückisch brasileiro, gostaria de brevemente mencionar a origem das duas palavras mencionadas acima como desencadeadoras dessa reflexão: Fenster e armazém, presentes no alemão e no português atuais, respectivamente.

Essas palavras são aparentemente triviais e fazem parte inquestionável de sua respectiva língua, mas, historicamente, elas também são fruto de empréstimos linguísticos[2]. Em termos simples e sem entrar em nuances e detalhes de como ocorre esse fenômeno, um empréstimo linguístico é a transferência, o empréstimo de um termo de uma língua para outra. Há vários motivos pelos quais empréstimos linguísticos são feitos, mas de forma generalizada podemos afirmar que eles ocorrem principalmente porque um determinado termo não existia no momento de sua incorporação na nova língua ou porque o novo vocábulo viria substituir um termo anterior, o qual talvez tenha caído em desuso ou que, p. ex., possa ter perdido seu status de uso no dia-a-dia. Há, ainda, casos de empréstimos que são incorporados com a finalidade de desambiguação.  No português atual, p.ex., a palavra inglesa off parece ter um status maior, ao menos nos shoppings, do que a palavra desconto, embora muitos talvez nem saibam exatamente o que off signifique.

Voltemos, contudo, aos exemplos mencionados acima. A palavra alemã Fenster deve sua origem ao latim; após algumas transformações linguísticas bastante comuns (alterações fonéticas e morfológicas), o termo latino fenestra (janela) transformou-se em Fenster. No português temos a palavra defenestrar (jogar/jogar-se pela janela), proveniente da mesma fenestra latina.

Já a palavra armazém no português é de origem árabe: al-makhzan, um lugar para guardar mercadorias, depósito; é daí que também surge a palavra portuguesa magazine[3].

Qual o objetivo de usar essas duas palavras? Elas servem para ilustrar como as línguas recorrem a termos de outras línguas e os incorporam, a ponto de nem serem mais identificadas como provenientes de outro idioma. Esse é um recurso muito normal, difícil de ser percebido em palavras mais antigas como armazém e bem mais fácil de ser identificado em palavras como sanduíche (obviamente proveniente do inglês sandwich). Algumas vezes, até mesmo alteramos o sentido de palavras quando empréstimos linguísticos são feitos: lunch (que em inglês significa “almoço”) vira lanche, que em português significa uma “refeição rápida ou pequena”.

Esse tipo de incorporação, porém, não permite que nós afirmemos que o português deixou de ser português porque agora usa as palavras armazém e lanche, ao invés de outras equivalentes que talvez já tenham caído em desuso ou quem sabe nunca tenham existido. Se assim fosse, seríamos privados de milhares de palavras; talvez só um punhado de palavras “genuínas”, o que quer que isto signifique, ficariam a nossa disposição.

O Caso do Hunsrückisch Brasileiro

O mesmo fenômeno ocorre com o Hunsrückisch brasileiro. Os alemães que imigraram para o Brasil nem sempre sabiam falar o alemão-padrão; em muitas áreas do novo mundo, o Hunsrückisch se estabeleceu como língua-padrão, por ter sido a língua da maioria (cf. Altenhofen 1996, Damke 1997 e Pupp Spinassé 2008). Ele funcionava como uma espécie de língua-franca, pois a origem de muitos imigrantes nem sequer era a região do Hunsrück, mas sim outras partes da área onde hoje estão situadas a Alemanha, a Áustria, a Suíça e até mesmo partes da França e da Polônia atuais, onde se falava alemão. Grande parte dessa imigração ocorreu de 1824 até o final daquele século. As comunidades se formavam e muitas vezes ficam isoladas, sem contato algum com a área de língua alemã dos antepassados, e algumas vezes até mesmo de certa forma isoladas em relação a outras áreas do próprio Brasil, onde se falava português, italiano e outras línguas.

As línguas são extremamente dinâmicas, apesar de muitas vezes nem nos darmos conta de que elas funcionam assim. Como exemplo anedótico, pensemos em uma pessoa dos anos de 1950, que tenha sido guardada em uma caixa naquela época e que só tenha sido libertada recentemente para ver o mundo dos nossos dias. Será que ela saberia do que estamos falando se citássemos termos como celular, computador, impressora, fibra ótica, crédito pré-pago, DVD, curtir e postar na rede social, entre outras centenas de verbetes e expressões? Certamente não, essa pessoa se sentiria completamente perdida, como se estivéssemos falando em outra língua ou “com códigos secretos”.

Algo parecido se deu com o Hunsrückisch brasileiro. Ele passou a existir de forma relativamente isolada em relação às variedades faladas na região do Hunsrück na Alemanha. Em compensação, porém, ele passou a conviver com as variantes do português brasileiro e, em algumas circunstâncias, também em contato com outras línguas europeias faladas no Brasil. Essa situação de contato é condição necessária para que haja um ambiente propício para a ocorrência de empréstimos linguísticos. Se nós já fazemos empréstimos de línguas com as quais sequer estamos em contato direto, então imaginemos a situação do Hunsrückisch no Brasil.

Além do desenvolvimento independente da língua de origem, com o passar do tempo, novas invenções surgiram e, com ela, a necessidade de criar ou emprestar centenas de palavras. Como “batizar” a televisão em Hunsrückisch brasileiro, se o termo do alemão-padrão não é conhecido e não está à disposição? Inevitavelmente a solução é recorrer à língua com a qual se está em contato, daí surge a solução e o nome do objeto, já adaptado à fonética do Hunsrückisch brasileiro: televisón. A outra solução é recorrer à criatividade e usar termos disponíveis na própria língua para criar a nova palavra: Bildakaschte (junção dos termos alemães “Bilder” e “Kasten”, significando em tradução direta para o português “caixa de imagens”), palavra que ocorre em algumas regiões e é uma variante de televisón. Nada de errado e nem de absurdo nisto, apenas um fenômeno linguístico passível de ocorrer em línguas vivas. Ou de onde os alemães teriam tirado a palavra Fernsehen (fern – longe, sehen – ver)? Ela é formada exatamente como televisão (do grego tele – longe, em junção com o latim visione – visão).

Em suma, quando um falante de Hunsrückisch brasileiro diz que o seu avô hot sich endlich aposentiert[4] (“finalmente se aposentou), ele não comete nenhum erro, nenhum atentado absurdo à língua, nem demonstra que é pouco inteligente. Ao contrário, mostra como a língua é dinâmica, como ela pode se adaptar às necessidades e aos fatos do dia-a-dia. Ele demonstra, na verdade, que sua língua funciona perfeitamente como instrumento de comunicação, com regras gramaticais e fonéticas definidas, exatamente como qualquer outra língua. Inclusive, sequer foge à regra de ter exceções gramaticais. Com a expressão usada, esse falante exprime exatamente o que tem de ser dito para que a comunidade de falantes entenda o que pretende dizer. Ao contrário, se fosse arrogante e quisesse mostrar o quão é “versado”, dificilmente seria entendido pelos falantes do Hunsrückisch ao recorrer à expressão usada atualmente na Alemanha para dizer a mesma coisa: er ist in Rente gegangen ou er ist in den Ruhestand gegangen.

Conclusão

O preconceito em relação a este fantástico e completo sistema de comunicação que é o Hunsrückisch brasileiro, um verdadeiro tesouro que carrega dentro de si a cultura e a história de um povo, infelizmente ainda persiste. A falta de conhecimento em relação ao Hunsrückisch gera desconsideração. Uma pena que ainda haja alguns professores, inclusive de alemão, que ignorantemente desprezam o Hunsrückisch, procurando uma superioridade fantasiosa calcada em sua própria arrogância e ignorância acerca do funcionamento linguístico e orgânico de um sistema completo de comunicação oral, como é o caso do Hunsrückisch brasileiro.

O objetivo deste curto artigo foi demonstrar o quão importante é a reflexão e a compreensão adequada de fenômenos como o bilinguismo entre os descendentes de alemães, italianos, japoneses e de outras etnias, inclusive as indígenas, no Brasil. Não há justificativa científica para procurar eliminar o bilinguismo entre os falantes no Brasil, não há justificativa lógica nem prática para tal. Ser bilíngue é uma vantagem no mercado de trabalho no mundo todo, mas em nosso caso também é uma questão de não ignorar, apagar ou menosprezar a própria história. Somos o que somos, somos quem podemos ser.

 

Referências

ALTENHOFEN, Cléo Vilson. Hunsrückisch in Rio Grande do Sul. Ein Beitrag zur Beschreibung einer deutschbrasilianischen Dialektvarietät im Kontakt mit dem Portugiesischen. Stuttgart: Steiner, 1996.

BARANOW, Ulf Gregor. Studien zum deutsch-portugiesischen Sprachkontakt in Brasilien. Tese de Doutorado. München: Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, 1973.

DAMKE, Ciro. Sprachgebrauch und Sprachkontakt in der deutschen Sprachinsel in Südbrasilien. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang, 1997.

PUPP SPINASSÉ, Karen. Os imigrantes alemães e seus descendentes no Brasil: a língua como fator identitário e inclusivo. Conexão Letras. Porto Alegre: PPG-Letras, UFRGS, 2008, vol. 3, n. 3, p. 125-140.

SCHAUMLOEFFEL, Marco Aurelio. Interferência do Português em um Dialeto Alemão Falado no Sul do Brasil. Bridgetown: Lulu, 2007.

SCHERRE, Maria M. P. Entrevista sobre Preconceito Linguístico, variação e ensino concedida a Jussara Abraçado. Caderno de Letras da UFF – Dossiê: Preconceito linguístico e cânone literário, n. 36, p. 11-26, 1. Sem., 2008.

WEINREICH, Uriel. Sprachen in Kontakt. München: Beck, 1976.

NOTAS

[1] Optou-se pelo termo Hunsrückisch brasileiro neste artigo para deixar claro que o autor se refere às variedades dele faladas no Brasil. Geralmente se diz que as variantes do alemão do Brasil são, predominantemente, originárias do Hunsrück. É importante, porém, frisar que não existe apenas uma variante naquela região (e nem no Brasil) que possa ser denominada assim. Há diversas variedades, embora com grande parte dos seus sistemas em comum. Desse modo, pode-se falar na Alemanha, por exemplo, de variedades como o Moselfränkisch e o Rheinfränkisch; este último, por sua vez, engloba variedades de Hessisch e Pfälzisch (Schaumloeffel 2007, p. 32-33). Para obter mais detalhes sobre o Hunsrückisch, recomendamos os estudos de Altenhofen (1996), Baranow (1973) e Damke (1997).

[2] Há muitos estudos sobre o fenômeno dos empréstimos linguísticos. Para maiores detalhes consulte p. ex. Weinreich (1976).

[3] Dicionários etimológicos são instrumentais para o estabelecimento da origem dos empréstimos linguísticos. Como os dois exemplos aqui citados são relativamente bem conhecidos, nenhum dicionário etimológico foi consultado. Porém, até mesmo uma consulta rápida on-line permite confirmar a sua origem. Para armazém veja http://www.dicionarioetimologico.com.br/ e para Fenster consulte http://www.duden.de/.

[4] Assim como muitas palavras, o verbo “sich aposentieren” (aposentar-se) apresenta diferentes variantes nas mais diversas regiões. Ele p. ex. também pode ser realizado como “sich aposehtere”, “sich aposentehren”, “sich aposentiere”. O sistema de aposentadoria só passou a existir em 1889 na Alemanha, portanto, provavelmente não beneficiava nem era conhecido pelos imigrantes alemães do Hunsrück no momento em que a maioria deles imigrou para o Brasil. O autor deste artigo é falante nativo da variedade Hunsrückisch falada em Boa Vista do Herval, localidade do município de Santa Maria do Herval – RS, e os exemplos citados aqui constam no corpus por ele coletado com mais de 13 horas de gravações feitas com 36 entrevistados selecionados de acordo com critérios sociolinguísticos (Schaumloeffel  2007).

Interferenz des Portugiesischen im deutschen Dialekt von Boa Vista do Herval, Rio Grande do Sul

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Artikel in den Tagungsakten des VI. Brasilianischen Deutschlehrerkongresses und des I. Lateinamerikanischen Deutschlehrerkongresses, São Paulo, Brasilien, 27.07.2006

“Deutsch in Südamerika: Neue Wege – Neue Perspektiven”

Inhaltsverzeichnis: http://www.abrapa.org.br/cd/beitrage.htm

Artikel
SCHAUMLOEFFEL, Marco Aurelio. Interferenz des Portugiesischen im deutschen Dialekt von Boa Vista do Herval, Rio Grande do Sul. In: I Congresso Latino-Americano de Professores de Alemão & VI Congresso Brasileiro de Professores de Alemão, 2006, São Paulo, Brasil. Tagungsakten des VI. Brasilianischen Deutschlehrerkongresses. São Paulo: Abrapa, 2006

http://www.schaumloeffel.net/textos/interferenz.pdf


Source: Marco

Empréstimos lingüísticos do português nas línguas faladas no País dos Tabons

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Artigo publicado:

Schaumloeffel, Marco Aurelio. Empréstimos lingüísticos do português nas línguas faladas no País dos Tabons. Palavras (Lisboa), v. 34, p. 47-60, 2008.

Atitudes ambientais em Barbados.

Artigo publicado:
SCHAUMLOEFFEL, Marco Aurelio. Atitudes ambientais em Barbados. Revista Qualitá Socioambiental, Curitiba- PR, p. 58, 01 set. 2006

Atitudes ambientais em Barbados

Marco Aurelio Schaumloeffel*

Em Barbados, nas Índias Ocidentais, uma pequena ilha do Caribe com cerca de 270.000 habitantes e 0,5 km² menor que a ilha de Santa Catarina, a preocupação com o meio-ambiente é intensa. Vários fatores concorrem para que a atitude do governo e da população seja em prol da preservação e melhoria do meio em que vivemos. Alguns deles também são verificáveis no Brasil, outros seriam de fácil implantação, enquanto que outros poucos exigiriam um esforço mais amplo e mudanças de longo prazo para que se efetivassem. Nas próximas linhas estão algumas amostras esparsas disto.

Causa boa impressão passear pelas ruas da capital Bridgetown e de outros distritos. Elas têm um aspecto bastante limpo, mesmo que algumas vezes seja possível ver copos descartáveis e outros tipos de embalagens, mas lixo espalhado na rua não é regra. Perto de lanchonetes que oferecem junk food, há maior incidência de junk people e maior chance de haver lixo depositado em lugares impróprios. O principal fator que faz as pessoas terem consciência de que não é nada agradável nem higiênico conviver com o lixo espalhado pela cidade é o nível de educação: mais de 98% da população é alfabetizada, o que faz, claro que não automaticamente, mas como uma conditio sine qua non, com que a qualidade de vida (nela se inclui a consciência ambiental) e a renda per capita sejam altas. A educação é uma das causas e não a conseqüência de boa qualidade de vida e de bom nível de renda. Pelos dados da ONU, Barbados está em 30° lugar no Índice de Desenvolvimento Humano (IDH), o melhor entre os países considerados em desenvolvimento, enquanto que o Brasil está em  36°. Mesmo o município com o melhor IDH no Brasil, São Caetano do Sul (SP), tem um índice menor do que Barbados; já o pior, Manari (PE), equipara-se ao nível dos últimos países da lista. O índice de alfabetização relativamente baixo do Brasil, porém, não exime de culpa quem teve educação e tem consciência de como poderia agir, mas mesmo assim insiste em jogar aquela latinha de cerveja pela janela do carro ou todo dia usa 5 copos descartáveis de plástico para tomar cafezinho no escritório, quando poderia usar sua xícara pessoal, que, claro, é menos prática e tem de ser lavada.

Uma das coisas que funciona muito bem aqui e que desandou no Brasil, embora também funcionasse há pouco mais de uma década, é a devolução de garrafas vazias. Por comodidade, optou-se por quase que exclusivamente fazer e comprar garrafas pet, que causam inúmeros danos ao meio-ambiente, latinhas e embalagens tetra pak. Aqui todas as garrafas, sejam de plástico ou de vidro, sejam grandes ou long neck, são recolhidas e reutilizadas ou recicladas. O sistema é simples, como já era no Brasil antes de optarmos pela comodidade: há um depósito a ser pago, de mais ou menos R$ 0,25 sobre cada garrafa comprada, não interessando onde foi adquirida. Depois de vazias, o consumidor pode entregá-las em postos de coleta. Todo supermercado, por exemplo, recebe garrafas de volta. Ao devolvê-las, o consumidor recebe um ticket referente ao valor das garrafas devolvidas, que pode ser usado para comprar qualquer produto, não sendo necessário adquirir a mesma bebida para poder ter o “direito” de devolver as garrafas. Isso é eficiente, funciona. Por que nós não fazemos? Preguiça e descaso com o meio-ambiente. O Brasil é um dos países com os mais altos índices de reciclagem de latas de alumínio, o que é louvável. Infelizmente não temos este alto índice de reciclagem por conta de nossa consciência ecológica, mas sim pela miséria que faz com que os mais pobres entre os pobres desesperadamente catem latas por todos os cantos.  O ideal seria continuar reciclando, sem a necessidade de se apoiar na miséria, mas por consciência de que assim causaremos menos prejuízos ao planeta. Por falar em embalagens: aqui o leite e os sucos vêm em garrafinhas de plástico ou mesmo em caixinhas de papelão com parede interna revestida de plástico (mas não com alumínio, como acontece nas terríveis embalagens tetra pak, que causam alergia a quem tem hipersensibilidade a este metal), os produtos permanecem refrigerados e têm uma validade de cerca de 15 dias.

A conscientização da população em relação à limpeza também tem um forte apelo: o turismo. Grande parte da entrada de dinheiro no país vem dos turistas americanos e europeus. Todo mundo sabe que quase ninguém viria para cá se as praias estivessem sujas e as águas poluídas. As redes de água e esgotos aqui são bem estruturadas. A água distribuída é potável e em grande parte vem do mar, passando por processo de dessalinização. O esgoto é tratado e devolvido, através de emissários, em pontos no alto-mar, a boa distância da costa. Há cerca de 30 anos não era assim, mas que esta medida fez com que as águas das praias azul-turquesa desta partezinha do Caribe, assim como se vê em filmes, ficassem totalmente limpas. Em Bridgetown há um pequeno braço de mar que adentra a cidade e serve de atracadouro. Ao contrário do que se possa imaginar, as águas lá são transparentes, sendo possível ver peixes quando se está parado em alguma das pontes que a cruzam.

Aqui ocorre um debate interessante na mídia sobre um tipo de poluição geralmente ignorado por nós brasileiros: o país inteiro está discutindo uma nova lei sobre poluição sonora, que o governo implantará em breve. Em termos gerais, há bastante barulho, especificamente nas vias principais de Barbados, mesmo que a ilha seja um lugar bastante tranqüilo e silencioso. As pessoas adoram berrar para chamar a atenção de conhecidos que estão passando, as vans e os ônibus particulares têm sistemas de som infernais instalados, que o dia todo tocam músicas locais, a buzina é um dos acessórios mais usados no carro, algumas igrejas usam sistemas de som externo durante seus cultos.

Nos jornais freqüentemente há artigos que tratam de questões ambientais, mostrando que o assunto faz parte do dia-a-dia e é de interesse e preocupação da população como um todo. Talvez o tamanho do país também faça esta necessidade de preservar saltar aos olhos, pois se as pessoas começassem a destruir, não haveria muito que destruir, ao contrário do imenso Brasil, onde alguns milhares de hectares desmatados são só uma pequena mancha visível nas imagens de satélite, fazendo com que estas questões nos pareçam distantes e pouco importantes.

A companhia telefônica daqui lançou uma linha chamada “The Green Line”, totalmente operada por computador, funciona com mensagens gravadas. Ela é gratuita e dá informações de como os cidadãos podem dar destinação correta a diferentes tipos de materiais, como p. ex., o que fazer com carros e aparelhos domésticos  inutilizados, com lixo tóxico, baterias etc., indicando os locais corretos de entrega, além de dar informações de como fazer um local de decomposição de lixo orgânico em casa, de quais são as leis ambientais e as normas sanitárias do país, de como fazer denúncias e quais as companhias e grupos comunitários que são “environmentally-friendly”. O acesso à informação é fundamental.

Mesmo que ainda demandem melhoras, as atitudes do governo e dos cidadãos de Barbados em relação ao meio-ambiente podem fornecer bons exemplos para que nós também cuidemos do nosso país, abençoado por Deus, bonito por natureza, mas vítima de desleixos praticados por muitos de nós.

 

 
* O autor reside em Barbados, nas Índias Ocidentais, desde 2005. Marco Aurelio Schaumloeffel já viveu  no Gana, África Ocidental (de 2003 a 2005) é mestre em lingüística (UFPR), graduado em português, alemão e literatura e professor (leitor brasileiro) na University of the West Indies, enviado pelo MRE/Itamaraty. Além de livros e artigos nas áreas de lingüística, português, alemão, história e cultura brasileira, o autor também já redigiu artigos com temáticas ambientais para o website da ONG Curupira Ambiental, da qual é membro. Para obter mais informações sobre Barbados visite o site www.schaumloeffel.net e clique em “The Barbados Blog”. E-Mail para contato: marco@schaumloeffel.net

Source: Marco

The African contribution to Brazilian Sports

Picture Text for Graphic Sports – Weekend Edition 15 apr 2005

The African contribution to Brazilian Sports

Last time I wrote about the huge contribution of the people of African origin in Brazilian football. Their contribution is obviously not only restricted to football, but can be extended to many other sports in Brazil. They were responsible for the creation of a new modality in sports called capoeira.

During the Olympic Games 2004 in Athens it was possible to see that large part of the crew of athletes representing Brazil in the games is of Afro-Brazilian origin. Afro-Brazilians are present in the collective sports like volleyball and basketball, but also in individual modalities.

Brazilians are normally very proud of their athletes, especially if they are able to win a medal. During the last Century a lot of Afro-Brazilians became legends of sports. This is the case of a very important Afro-Brazilian called Joao Carlos de Oliveira, known as “Joao do Pulo”. His nickname means “John, the Jumper”. In the Panamerican Games in Mexico in 1975 he broke the world record with the mark of 17.89 meters. It was so impressive, that this jump remained for 10 years as the world record. In the same Games he also won the gold medal in the long jump (8.19m).

Years earlier, already Adhemar Ferreira da Silva, a former Brazilian cultural attaché in Nigeria, became famous when he broke several times the world record in the triple jump. In the same Olympic Games (1952) e. g. he broke the world record four times and raised the mark to 16.22 meters. He was from a poor family, a real symbol of achievement. He worked during the day, studied at night and trained during his lunch hour. The deserved reward were two gold medals in this category.

Joaquim Cruz, another Afro-Brazilian, won the Olympic gold medal on the track in the Olympic Games of Los Angeles 1984 with the new Olympic record of 1.43.0 in 800 meters. Nowadays we have a lot of new, very good Afro-Brazilian athletes, like the sprinter Wanderley Quirino and the celebrity Daiane dos Santos, elected in Brazil the Sports Women of the Year 2003. In the World Championship in the USA, she won the gold medal in Floor Exercises, with a sequence called “double twist carped”, called later “Dos Santos” by the International Federation of Gymnastic. In the World Cup in Germany, she surprised the world again with an even more difficult sequence, the “double twist extended”. She was a candidate for a gold medal in the Olympic Games 2004, but injuries interfered in the results and she ended as fifth best gymnast. Even though, a short time later, by the end of 2004, she was again Gymnastics World Champion.

In boxing we have today a man of Bahia called Acelino “Pop[MAS1] o” de Freitas. He is actually WBO lightweight world champion and still undefeated since the beginning of his career as a professional. In the past, Afro-Brazilians like Maguila were very famous. In Ghana you have a multi champion and legend of boxing, that doesn’t need any comments: Azumah Nelson, a Ghanaian and Tabom of Afro-Brazilian origin.

In spite of all the problems that athletic sports have, because the sponsorship of individual athletes in some modalities seems not to be of interest to big companies, the athletes can produce very good results. A lot of them are what we can call “half professionals”. Because of their condition as underpaid athletes they have other jobs to earn money. So they train e. g. in the early morning, during the day they work and go to evening classes to improve their educational level to have better professional perspectives after retirement as athletes. For these heroes of sport the Brazilians normally pay respect and admiration, because their story is a story of self-sacrifice, humility, passion and pride.

Capoeira, brought into Brazil by the Bantu people from Angola, was originally a kind of foot-boxing fight, a way of self defence. In Brazil, capoeira was transformed into a kind of sport-dance practised by two dancers that show figures of a fight in form of dance without touching each other. It is a sport with a lot of skill which requires a fit body condition and is always accompanied by Afro-Brazilian music of West African origin. The musicians and the other participants are in a circle around the dancers, singing and clapping hands.

When the Afro-Brazilians or even all the Brazilian athletes, independent of their origin, are taking part in a competition or a tournament, they show their typical superstition, combining Christian prayers and the sign of the cross with African fetishist rituals to protect their body against injuries and to help them to win the fight against their opponents in the competitions.

Marco Aurelio Schaumloeffel
Brazilian Lecturer in Ghana

Picture “daiane.jpg”: The World Champion Daiane dos Santos

Tabom People will welcome President of Brazil with a durbar

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 SCHAUMLOEFFEL, Marco Aurelio. Tabom People will welcome President of Brazil with a durbar. Daily Graphic, Accra, v. 149400, p. 15 – 15, 11 abr. 2005.

Tabom People will welcome the President of Brazil with a durbar

The Afro-Brazilian community in Ghana, known as Tabom People, will have the honour to organize a durbar to welcome the President of Brazil, H.E. Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, who will be in Ghana from the 12th to the 13th April. It will be the first time that a Brazilian President will pay a visit to Ghana. Mr. Lula da Silva’s efforts show a clear policy in relation to Africa. In his first 3 years in office, he visited more African countries than all the other former Brazilian Presidents together. In this sense, Mr. Lula da Silva is strengthening the so called South-South relations between countries, apart from establishing stronger links between Africa and Brazil, the second biggest black nation in the world after Nigeria. And a part of these links between the two sides of the Atlantic is the Tabom People. It was a group of about 70 people that arrived in 1836 in Accra, after being freed as slaves in Brazil. Like many others in Nigeria, Benin and Togo, they decided to come back to Africa. Here they were most welcome by the Gas in the Otublohum Division in James Town.  They received land and started to farm. They brought with them skills such as irrigation techniques, architecture, carpentry, blacksmithing, gold smithing and tailoring. In the area of the Angetebu Street (Adabraka), they dug wells and found non brackish water, thereby improving the sanitary conditions of all the people in Accra. The leader of the Tabom group at the time of their arrival was a Nii Azumah Nelson. Since that time the Nelson family has been very important to the History of the Tabom People. The eldest son of Azumah Nelson, Nii Alasha, was his successor and a very close friend to the Ga Mantse Nii Tackie Tawiah.

At the present moment the Tabom Mantse is Nii Azumah V, descendant of the Nelsons. The Tabons are also known as the founders of the First Scissors House in 1854, the first tailoring shop in the country, which had amongst other activities, the task to provide the Ghanaian Army with uniforms by the tailor George Aruna Nelson, master of Dan Morton, another Tabom and one of the most famous tailors nowadays in Accra. The First Scissors House still exists, and is very close to the Central Post Office.

Some of the Tabons still live nowadays in James Town, where the first house built and used by them on arrival in Ghana is located. It is called “Brazil House” and can be found in a short street with the name “Brazil Lane”. There are some plans of UNESCO and the Government of Brazil to restore this house, within the ‘Old Accra Integrated Urban Development and Conservation Framework’, a project of the Government of Ghana, transforming it in a cultural site for the Tabom to display their own History.

The beginning of the official relation between Brazil and the Tabom People was immediately after the set up of the Embassy of Brazil in Ghana in 1961. The first Brazilian Ambassador to Ghana, Mr. Raimundo Souza Dantas was very well received by them. Since then the relations have become more intensive, and continue to grow.

So it is natural, that the first Brazilian President coming to Ghana wants also to interact with the Tabom community, his “Brazilian brothers” in Ghana.

Apart from the durbar of the Tabom People, Mr. Lula da Silva has other very important issues to deal with. He will hold several discussions with the Government of Ghana on e. g. bilateral agreements and the reform of the UN, and will launch the Ghana-Brazil Chamber of Commerce. Brazil is cooperating with Ghana in sectors like salt and cassava production. In a cooperation together with JICA (Japan) a group of 11 specialists was sent last month to Brazil to learn about the latest technology in cassava processing. Besides that, in the educational sector the Embassy has brought a Brazilian lecturer to teach Portuguese, Brazilian literature, History and Civilisation and is granting every year about 10 scholarships for Ghanaians to study in the best Brazilian universities.

Marco Aurelio Schaumloeffel
Brazilian Lecturer in Ghana

P.S.: the correct way to write the name of the Afro-Brazilian People is TABOM (with “m”) even though the right pronunciation is “tabon”.

Attached is a picture. Subtitle for it: “Nii Azumah III with from left to right on the front row Naa Abiana II, Queen Mother of the Tabom, H.E. Raimundo de Souza Dantas the Ambassador of Brazil to Ghana from 1961 to 1963, Mrs De Souza Dantas, the Ambassador’s wife, and their child between them. Nii Azumah III on the extreme right and other members of the Tabom Community in the background (1961).”


Source: Marco

The History of the Brazil House

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Text for the Daily Graphic, Accra, Ghana, 09 Apr 2005

The History of the Brazil House

The History of the Brazil House is closely related to the History of the Tabom People, who returned to Ghana from Brazil in 1836. It is maybe the biggest material symbol of the importance of the Tabom People and a symbol of their History in Ghana. This becomes very clear when we look at its privileged location, in the Brazil Lane in Old Accra, facing the sea, straight in front of the old port, for a long time the gate from and to the world.

A chat with Mr. W. L. Lutterodt, a Tabom Senior and the accredited head of the Mamah Nassu family with authority to represent the family in all matters pertaining to Brazil House, reveals a lot of the History of the Brazil House.

When Mamah Nassu arrived together with six other families in 1836 from Brazil, he was the flag bearer of the clan. He bought that land in the Brazil Lane and built a house there for his family. He was married to Naa Supiana and had a daughter called Naa Chercher, who later married a royal from the Nii Oto Din family of Otublohum. This marriage is a clear sign that the Tabom People were welcomed and accepted within the Ga State. Naa Chercher had four children: Okanta Acquah, Kofi Acquah, Florence Acquah and Mary Acquah. Her son Kofi Acquah became a professional cook. He went to Warri in Nigeria and worked there for some years. On his return to the Gold Coast he demolished the old family house built by Nii Mama Nassu and replaced it by the present two storey house as a family house for himself and his sisters.

For a considerable number of years the late Kofi Acquah leased the house to various European businessmen and companies. One of these companies built a warehouse on the land, which they used for their business.

From the year 1942 however the house was no longer rented out and the family went to live there. The warehouse was converted into dwellings and let out to outsiders. A few surviving members who are direct descendants of Kofi Acquah are also living in the house.

Since the Brazil House is in state of disrepair, the Brazilian Government had together with UNESCO and the Tabom People the idea to rehabilitate it. Apart from these institutions, the Government of Ghana is also supporting the project within the so called “Old Accra Integrated Urban Development and Conservation Framework”.

The Brazil House will serve as a cultural space where Brazil and the Brazilian community in Ghana will be able to interact with the Tabom People and the general public, and it will serve as the Official Hall of the Tabom Mantse. Most of the people currently living on the premises will remain on the site and will see their dwellings refurbished in the context of the project.

The Tabom Mantse’s Official Hall will highlight the Brazilian roots of the Tabom People by establishing a documentation centre and an exhibition space where the Tabons will have a chance to learn more about their History and its linkages to Brazil.

It is interesting to note that the rehabilitation of Brazil House deals with an interesting aspect of the Slave Route Project: The return of descendants of former slaves from Brazil to the continent of their ancestors.

The announcement made yesterday by Mr. Lula da Silva, President of the Federative Repubic of Brazil, donating a considerable amount of money to the Tabom foundation for the rehabilitation of the Brazil House was a great step by Brazil in supporting the Tabom People in its efforts to have a cultural centre that shows their History. On the other hand, very good news came from the private sector for the Tabom People: Coral Paints (M&K Ghana) released the information today that they will also donate money for the named foundation, completing the needed funds for the rehabilitation project to become a reality.

Source: some of the information used here are in the brochure “Brazil House Rehabilitation Project”

Marco Aurelio Schaumloeffel
Brazilian Lecturer in Ghana

Attached: picture of the Brazil House in the Brazil Lane in James Town

The African contribution to Brazilian Football

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SCHAUMLOEFFEL, Marco Aurelio. The African Contribution to Brazilian Football. Graphic Sports – Weekend Edition, Accra, v. 2289, p. 10 – 11, 08 abr. 2005.

 

The African contribution to Brazilian Football

To think of Brazilian football without African contribution is virtually impossible. We are the only nation that participated in all the World Championships ever organized and are five times World Champions (1958, 1962, 1970, 1994 and 2002). One of the biggest factors for this feat is undoubtedly the African characteristics brought into our way of playing this game.

Football was introduced in Brazil by the Brazilian Charles Miller in 1894. He was the son of an English couple, studied in England and played in the team of Southampton as a striker. When he returned to Brazil, he brought two balls and could hardly imagine what a sensation he would cause in our country. The first official team in Brazil was Sport Club Rio Grande, founded in 1900 in the South of Brazil by guys of German, English, Portuguese and Brazilian ascendancy. Soon after that all the other, today famous, clubs like Sao Paulo, Corinthians, Flamengo, Fluminense, Gremio, Santos and Palmeiras were founded.

Initially it was only played by people of the highest social standing, being considered a “noble” sport like golf, tennis or yachting. But soon people started to improvise the game with e. g. balls made of leather and stuffed with old paper or rags. Any vacant lot, sand area, river bank or even in the middle of the street is an appropriate place to play an amateur match, that we call “pelada”. Pelada is for everybody who enjoys to play football, poor and rich, black and white. It is maybe the most democratic popular institution in the world. Apart from that, it is certainly the birthplace of the biggest new Brazilian football stars. Romario, Ronaldo and Ronaldinho Gaucho, just to cite a few, started their careers in the streets, before they could play in the largest football stadium in the world, the Estadio Maracana in Rio de Janeiro, which can hold a crowd of over 200,000.

Everyday I can see peladas in various parts of Accra, which I’m sure is pure fun and certainly also good grounding for new Ghanaian football talents.

Since football was considered a sport for “special” people in the early 1910’s, the Afro-Brazilians were initially not allowed to play in the clubs. But it was inevitable to notice their abilities for the game. Soon football worked as an emancipation instrument for poor black, mullato and white people. In 1923 the team of Vasco da Gama won the cup of Rio de Janeiro, with a team basically composed of Afro-Brazilians rejected by other clubs, causing the admiration of football fans. The club “Gremio” of Porto Alegre, founded in 1903, e.g. only in 1952 decided to end with racial selection of players, contracting the first Afro-Brazilian player. It was the forward Tesourinha, a football genius (less than 10 years ago Gremio produced the Afro-Brazilian Ronaldinho). The natural skills of the Afro-Brazilians in football, the malleability and cadence, sense of improvisation, the spectacular dribbles and control of the ball were finally recognized.

If the theme is Brazilian football, we can not forget the ever greatest player. We call Mr. Edson Arantes do Nascimento simply “Rei Pele” (King Pele). Between 1956 and 1977 Pele scored 1,279 goals, becoming the player ever to have scored the biggest number of goals in official matches. His 1000th goal was scored in his 909th match. And these are only the official figures, without all the goals scored in unofficial matches, in which he took part, just to give an idea. Because of him and his Santos Futebol Clube, we have today, amongst others, teams in Guyana, Jamaica, South Africa, Namibia, Burkina Faso and in the second division in Ghana with the name “Santos”. One of the best and most famous Ghanaian players gave himself, not casually, the nickname Abedi Pele.

The same qualities can be said of the Afro-Brazilians in the women national team. In this modality Brazil has to learn a lot from other national teams. It is a relatively new modality, so that we can not have legends like Pele in women football, but one of the most famous players of the team is the Afro-Brazilian striker “Pretinha”, who is only known by her nickname which makes very clear her origin, for “Pretinha” is how we call, with affection, a small back girl.

Apart from all the abilities of the Afro-Brazilians, we also show the world what we inherited from the Afro-Brazilians before the beginning of each match due to our association of sport and religion. Many players make the sign of the Cross and practise mystic rituals, in the hope to disarm the adversary. The majority of sports lovers, especially football players, managers, coaches and fans, show a kind of superstition, a kind of mixture between Catholic belief and Afro-Brazilian rituals. If somebody really wants to protect his team, he performs or orders a voodoo session that we call macumba, which can be seen in some cities at street corners in the early morning.

From the national selection of 2002, which won the World Cup in Korea and Japan, 15 out of 22 players selected for the Brazilian national team were Afro-Brazilians, figures that show the importance of the contribution of Afro-Brazilians in our football. Since the 1930’s Brazilian football players, especially Afro-Brazilians, who enjoy a good reputation, were sent abroad, to play in the most famous European teams. Under a European team scheme, they have contact with more rigorous planning and tactic organization. Today, Brazilian players can be found in all the continents. Tunisia, the African Champion of 2004, for example, naturalized two Brazilians to play in their selection.

And it is just the mixture of the African abilities with the European discipline, the severe schemes, straight and without any creativity, that created the Brazilian football, admired all over the world. The best example of good results and profits of a sport globalisation is a Brazilian player with roots in Africa, who goes with all his creativity and innuendos to Europe to learn all about the boredom of planned everyday life in sports. The result, as we know, is superb.

P.S.: I used here conscious the term “football” instead of the strange word “soccer”. In Brazil we ignore the violent American football, and I prefer to stay with “football” (“futebol” in Portuguese) in its original meaning, the art that combines “foot” and “ball”. Since football has world dimensions and is not restricted to a few societies, I believe that we have the right to keep it with its original meaning.

Marco Aurelio Schaumloeffel
Brazilian Lecturer in Ghana

Dash me more palaver: Portuguese words in Ghana

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A Brazilian in Ghana – IX

SCHAUMLOEFFEL, Marco Aurelio. Dash me more palaver: Portuguese words in Ghana. Daily Graphic, Accra, v. 149393, p. 16 – 16, 02 abr. 2005.

“Dash me more palaver”: Portuguese words in Ghana.

It’s amazing to see, how many words from the Portuguese were borrowed to various Ghanaian languages. Last year, I wrote a short article in the Graphic about some words used in Ghana that come from Portuguese. But deeper research has shown a large number of borrowed words, so that I decided to “dash you more palaver” on it, to be very clear in good Ghanaian Pidgin English.

As we already know, the influence of the Portuguese language in Ghana is related to the arrival of the Portuguese as first Europeans on the Gold Coast in 1471, to the close links between West Africa and Brazil during the terrible time of slave traffic and to the Afro-Brazilians who decided to come back to Africa after they were freed or bought their freedom in Brazil. In Ghana these returnees are called “Tabom People”, they arrived here in 1836 under the leadership of the Nelsons, still a well known family in Accra.

Apart from words and expressions like “dash me”, “palaver” (Pidgin), “sabola” (Ewe) and “paano” (Fanti) that I explained last time, plenty of other words are of Portuguese origin. Especially the words related to food are productive. So, when you refer to “abolo” (Ewe and Ga), you are using a word that comes from the Portuguese “bolo” (cake), or “ayo” (Ewe, Ga) means in Portuguese “alho” (garlic), “komidzi” (Fanti) for “comida” (food), “keesuu” (Akan) from “queijo” (cheese). The Names of some fishes come straight from the Portuguese: “barracuda”, “tilapia” and “grouper”. This last one is called a bit different in Portuguese (garoupa). Even “kafe” (Ewe, Ga, Akan) probably comes from our “cafe” and not from the English word “coffee”.

The same happens with words that designate a tool or an object. The Portuguese word “tabua” (board, wood) appears in Ghana as “tabo/tabu” (Ewe, Fanti) or as “tabua” (Twi). The Ewe “vele” (candle) is our “vela”, the Akan “safe” (key) comes from “chave”, the Fanti and Ga words “fononoo” and “flonoo” from “forno” (oven), while the words “akooble” (Ga), “kobere” (Akan) and “akobli” (Ewe) come from “cobre” (copper). The word “prego” (nail) was integrated into Fanti (“pregow”), Ga (“plekoo”) and Akan (“prekoo”). The Ga fishermen use a specific word for their needle with which they sew their nets, called “agulia”. It comes from “agulha” (needle).

The word “agua” (water) generated the Akan words “aguaree” (bath, wash – noun), “aguare” (bathe) and “guare” (wash – verb). Besides, I was told that in Ewe, Ga and Twi you ask for the bill in the restaurant or refer to a calculation with the word “akontaa”. The same happens in Brazil, where we request “a conta”.

It is also interesting to note that words used for some cutlery and kitchen objects are also from the Portuguese. It happened probably because the Portuguese brought these objects with them along to West Africa. In Ga we have “gafolo/gafojii” and in Ewe “gaflo”, which comes from “garfo” (fork). It is funny for me to see that “faka” in Fanti and Ewe can also mean “fork”, even though it comes from “faca” (knife), certainly caused by a confusion between the correct meaning of the words. Finally, a Fanti eats his meal from a “pretse”, which comes from “prato” (plate) and the Gas and the Akans drink from a “koopoo/kopoo”, from the Portuguese “copo” (glass, cup).

Also the clothing suffered influence from the Portuguese language. A Ga man can buy a “kamisaa” made of “seda” and a pair of “aspaatere”. “Kamisaa” comes from “camisa” (shirt), “seda” (term also common in Ewe) from “seda” (silk) and “aspaatere”, also used as “asopaatsee” (Fanti) or “asapatere” (Akan) from “sapato” (shoe).

When the Portuguese left by ship for the discoveries around the world, they normally had at least one Catholic priest along with them, because it was the official religion of the state. This is reflected nowadays in the Ghanaian languages. Some of the Ewes are “catolico” (Catholic, in Portuguese “catolico”), go to the “misa” (mass, in Portuguese “missa”), they read the “biblia” (bible, in Portuguese “biblia”, also used by the Gas) and believe in “Kristo” (Christ, in Portuguese “Cristo”, also common in Ga and Akan).

The story of the name of famous Tudu market area in Accra is also marked by Portuguese influence. In the 40’s the Portuguese established there some shops and started to rival with the traders of the Makola Market, explaining to people that only in their shops the costumers were able to find “tudo” (it means “everything” in Portuguese). Later the area was abandoned by the Portuguese, giving over to Syrians and to Lebanese traders. Nowadays the Ghanaians and the Chinese traders are dominating the area. Even though, the heritage of the Portuguese name of the place still lives on.

These are only a few examples of the words that I’m still collecting and it shows how precious the treasure of language can be. Some conservatives and purists might say, that the phenomenon of borrowing words from other languages corrupts the own culture, with which I cannot agree. All the languages pass through this process. In Portuguese e.g. we had and we still have influences of several African and Indian languages, Arabic, German, English, Spanish etc. The language stage shows a whole culture, its influences, its changes, its enrichment and improvement through the contact with other peoples and cultures.

Marco Aurelio Schaumloeffel
Brazilian Lecturer in Ghana

The Afro-Brazilian Religions

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 A Brazilian in Ghana – VI


SCHAUMLOEFFEL, Marco Aurelio. The Afro-Brazilian religions. Daily Graphic, Accra, v. 149159, p. 9 – 9, 15 jun. 2004.

The Afro-Brazilian Religions

When the Africans were brought to Brazil as slaves, they were not only “human machines” that worked in the plantations, as maybe wished by the Portuguese colonizers, but fortunately they contributed in various aspects of the life of Brazilian society. Under those contributions are the creation of diversity in creeds and religions and the consequent modification and adaptation of them in Brazil. The biggest part of the Brazilian population is Roman Catholic, which doesn’t mean that they are “pure” Catholics. In the state of Bahia the way to act and to belief of a Catholic family is certainly quite different from a traditional Catholic family in Italy, since the African elements played a role in the worship, in the beliefs, in the superstitions, in the collective mentality and in the way to interpret the world.

From South to North of our country we can see Afro-Brazilian religions. Well call them so, because in Brazil the African religions suffered various processes of influences and interaction with Catholicism and Spiritualism. Apart from that, the diverse African religions influenced each other internally in Brazil, in a type of amalgamation of traditions from several African tribes and countries. This whole phenomenon we call “syncretism”.

Even though the Africans brought to Brazil were from different regions, from Sudanese people of the West and North to Bantu people from the Southern part of the Continent, the Nago (Nigeria) and the Ewe (Togo) had the biggest influences in different Afro-Brazilians aspects of life. Nago (ioruba) became a kind of lingua franca under the Afro-Brazilians and the mixture of various African elements, but principally Nago and Ewe characteristics, created the Afro-Brazilian religions. Catholicism was the official religion of Brazil from 1500 to 1889, which meant, that the other religions like Afro-Brazilian creeds were forbidden. With a lot of creativity and the instinctive sense to keep their beliefs, the Afro-Brazilians “masked” their Gods with names of Catholic saints, which helped to preserve their religion, but now under the support of the “official church”. Because of these, the Gods and the saints of the Afro-Brazilian religions normally have nowadays two names. So e. g. the orisha (divinity) called Shango (God of thunder and lightning) can be also called Sao Jeronimo and Iansan (Goddess of the water) is also known as Santa Barbara.

The structure of an Afro-Brazilian religion normally presents an almighty God called Olorun (originally “the sky”, also called Olodumare, Olerum or Lorum) and the divinities (Orishas) acting between Him and the ordinary human beings. Orisha is a designation from Ioruba, the same as Vodum for the Ewes. In Central and North America this term was distorted, so that the fetishist Voodoo is for them quite different from the original Ewe meaning of divinity or saint.

The Sudanese (people from West Africa) culture created in Brazil various religions that are very similar, but labelled with different names. So we have Candomble in the State of Bahia, Shango in Pernambuco. Tambor-de-Mina in Maranhao, Batuque (also called Nassao or Para) in Rio Grande do Sul, amongst others. With a bigger Bantu influence, we have the religion called Umbanda, which has also, apart from the orishas, the influence of Spiritualism. They also worship the spirits of their ancestors. The Afro-Brazilians also interacted with the native people of Brazil, the Indios. As a result, we have the combination of Afro-Indigenous elements in religions called Babassue in the Amazon region or Tereco in Goias and Maranhao. Specialists in religious studies classify the Afro-Brazilian religions as anthropomorphic polytheistic fetishism, which means fetishism with various divinities in human forms. These human forms can also represent phenomena of nature.

The Afro-Brazilian religions are less closed than the Juju is in Ghana or in Nigeria; sacrifices to pay for good gods or to avoid malevolence are however done in secret in both places. In spite of the former syncretism, the Afro-Brazilian religions form separate churches, even if the same people attend more than one type of worship in the same day.

In Ghana I didn’t have the opportunity as yet to learn more about the traditional religions. People always say to me: “no, no, I’m a Christian. I don’t know anything about it”. Either they are trying to hide it from me or it is really a sign that the Western Christian churches, with all their advantages and disadvantages, are overriding the traditional religions and consequently a part of the African culture.

Marco Aurelio Schaumloeffel
Brazilian Lecturer in Ghana

Tabom – The Afro-Brazilian community in Accra

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 Publicado em 03.06.2004 no Daily Graphic (ISSN 0855-1529), página 14

SCHAUMLOEFFEL, Marco Aurelio. Tabom: The Afro-Brazilian community in Accra. Daily Graphic, Accra, v. 149143, p. 14 – 14, 03 jun. 2004.

A Brazilian in Ghana – V

 
Tabom – The Afro-Brazilian community in Accra

It was very strange for me as a Brazilian to arrive in Ghana and hear tales of a people called “Tabom”, because of the familiarity of the term with greetings in the Brazilian Portuguese. The Tabom People is an Afro-Brazilian community of former slaves, who decided to come back to the African continent of their ancestors, after they bought their own freedom in Brazil*. When they arrived in Accra they could speak only Portuguese, so they greeted each other with “Como esta?” (How are you?) to which the reply was “Ta bom”, so the Ga people of Accra started to call them the Tabom People.

We in Brazil already know about various communities of Afro-Brazilian descendants in West Africa, most of them spread through Benin, Nigeria and Togo. Some studies estimate that in the 19th Century approximately 10,000 former slaves decided to return to Africa. Throughout these countries we can find estates, schools and museums with the name “Brazil”. In Lagos there is an estate called “Brazilian Quarter” and a club with the name “Brazilian Social Club”; in Benin we can find a school called “Ecole Bresil”. In those countries it is very common to find family names like Souza, Silva, Olympio or Cardoso. Some of them were very well known in their countries. Sylvanus Epiphanio Kwami Olympio e.g. was elected the first President of Togo in 1960, unfortunately killed in 1963 because of a military coup. The first Chacha of Benin, that means the chief and controller of trade and relations with foreigners, was the Afro-Brazilian Francisco Felix de Souza, he became very rich due to his involvement in the slave traffic. He had 53 wives, 80 children and about 12,000 slaves. When he died, he left an empire of an estimated 120 Millions Dollars to his successors. The royal line of the Chachas still exists nowadays in Togo. The first Brazilian Ambassador to Ghana arrived in 1961. He was an Afro-Brazilian called Raymundo de Souza Dantas. He cites in his book “Africa dificil”, that he received a letter from a Togolese called Benedito de Souza, who alleged to be his cousin.

In Ghana, the only representative group of people that decided to come back from Brazil is the Tabom People. They came back on a ship called S. S. Salisbury, offered by the English Government. About seventy Afro-Brazilians of seven different families arrived in Accra, in the region of the old port in James Town in 1836, coming from Nigeria as visitors. The reception by the Mantse Nii Ankrah of the Otoblohum area was so friendly, that they decided to settle down in Accra. The leader of the Tabom group at the time of their arrival was a certain Nii Azumah Nelson. Since than time the Nelson family has been very important to the History of the Tabom People. The eldest son of Azumah Nelson, Nii Alasha, was his successor and a very close friend to the Ga King Nii Tackie Tawiah. Together they helped in the development of the whole community in commerce and environmental sanitation.

At the present moment the Tabom Mantse is Nii Azumah V, descendant of the Nelson’s. The Tabons are also known as the founders of the First Scissors House in 1854, the first tailoring shop in the country, which had amongst other activities, the task to provide the Ghanaian Army with uniforms. Proof of these skills is without any doubt Mr. Dan Morton, another Tabom and one of the most famous tailors nowadays in Accra.

Because they were welcomed by the Ga people and received by their king as personal guests, the Tabons received lands in privileged locations, in places that are nowadays very well known estates, like Asylum Down, the area near to the central train station and around the Accra Breweries. In those areas, the mango trees planted by them bear silent witnesses to their presence. In the estate of North Ridge there is a street called “Tabon Street”, which is a reminder of the huge plantations that they formerly had there. Some of the Tabons live nowadays in James Town, where the first house built and used by them as they arrived in Ghana is located. It is called the “Brazil House” and can be found in a short street with the name “Brazil Lane”.

The Tabons did not arrive poor, but rather with much wealth. Because of their agricultural skills, they started plantations of mango, cassava, beans and other vegetables. They brought also skills such as irrigation techniques, architecture, carpentry, blacksmithing, gold smithing, tailoring, amongst others, which certainly improved the quality of life of the whole community.

Apart from all these contributions, they also influenced the religious life of the community, helping in the definitive establishment of the Islamic religion and the preservation of some African religions that they modified in Brazil, like the shango. Nowadays the Tabons are completely integrated in the Ghanaian society and are a part of the Otublohum Section of the Ga People.

* Up to now it is not very clear, if they really bought their freedom and decided to immediately come back or if they were at that time free workers in Brazil, but were deported after the Male Revolt of 1835. A lot of Afro-Brazilians were deported back to Africa, especially Moslems who organised the Male Revolt. Since they arrived accidentally in 1836 in Accra and most of them were Moslems, it can possibly be the case. Only detailed and deeper studies can prove one of the suppositions.

Marco Aurelio Schaumloeffel

Brazilian Lecturer in Ghana

Picture 1: The Tabom Nii Alasha, extreme left, with Ga Chiefs including Nii Tackie Tawiah.

Picture 2: Nii Azumah III with from left to right on the front row Naa Abiana II, Queen Mother of the Tabom, H.E. Raymundo De Souza Dantas the Ambassador of Brazil to Ghana from 1961 to 1963, Mrs De Souza Dantas, the Ambassador’s wife, and their child between them.  Nii Azumah III on the extreme right and other members of the Tabom Community in the background (1961).

Picture 3: Tabom Mantse Nii Azumah V dancing during the outdooring ceremony at the Stool House (February 26th, 2000).

 

The links between West Africa and Brazil in the Culinary Arts and Food

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 A Brazilian in Ghana – IV

SCHAUMLOEFFEL, Marco Aurelio. The links between West Africa and Brazil in the Culinary Art. Daily Graphic, Accra, v. 149137, p. 14 – 14, 27 maio 2004.
 
The links between West Africa and Brazil in the Culinary Arts and Food

Both Brazilians and Africans have a lot in common in the way that they prepare their meals, not only common ingredients, but also alimentary habits. In Brazil, especially in areas like the Northeast of the country, the region with the biggest African influences, it is very common to see people preparing and selling food on the streets. It can be food like fried “acaraje” (a little spicy ball made of bean paste, onions and fried in palm oil, well-spiced with chilli and filled with a sauce of dried shrimps) or “pastel” (pies of different types e.g. with meat, cheese, chicken, maize or banana). In Ghana they also sell fried or grilled food and fruits. In Brazil and in Ghana the women carry their “shops” over their head or simply install it over a box or a small table at any point that seems to bring good deals in the streets.

One of our national main dishes is “feijoada”. It is stew that combines black beans cooked with pork meat and as accompaniment we eat rice, salad of green leafs of cabbage, roasted cassava flour and oranges. This dish is clearly a creation of Africans in Brazil. In the past unfortunately they were slaves of the Portuguese big landowners and received from them only the offal of meat, when they slaughter e.g. a pig. But they were very creative and cooked with the pork the “feijoada”, since black beans and the other accompaniment like the roasted cassava flour were abundant. We call our roasted cassava flour “farofa”, which is the same than your “gari”. In Brazil and in Ghana we use it accompanying bean dishes. We eat it normally on Saturdays at lunch, because it demands a long time for digestion, so that we can sleep in the afternoon, if necessary, especially if you have before the “feijoada” our national drink, the “caipirinha”, made of lemon, sugar, ice cubes and a sugar cane schnaps.

One of the main foods used by Ghanaians when they prepare their dishes is cassava. Cassava is native from South America. It was used as food by the aborigines (indios) a long time before the discovery of the Continent by the Europeans. It was probably brought to Africa by Afro-Brazilians. In Brazil we call cassava “mandioca”, a term that comes from the aboriginal language Tupi. Because it is wide spread throughout the country, we have, apart from the name “mandioca”, other names for it: “aipim”, “macaxeira”, “castelinha” and “maniveira”. Normally we use only its root, but in the last years we are also using the leaves, because of its high protein values. From the cassava it is also possible to extract alcohol.

Cocoa and coffee are also very common in Brazil and in West Africa. Cocoa is native from Central America. The people called Olmeca in Mexico knew the uses of it already around the year 3000 B.C., amongst other as a drink and in the religious ceremonies. Coffee, on the other hand, is native from Africa, precisely from the province of Kaffa (where the name “coffee” probably comes from) in Ethiopia. Brazil is the main coffee producer in the world, while Cote D’Ivoire is the main producer of cocoa.

A lot of other alimentary habits are the same in our countries. The food street vendors also offer green coconut juice, fried food made with palm oil (“oleo de dende”, originally from Angola), roasted peanuts as a snack, we have also rice as a side dish (not potatoes), we dry the shrimps. Some other habits are similar, but with some differences. We like to eat both cashew fruits and the roasted nuts. Sugar cane is normally sold as fresh juice, not as sticks. As a variation, it can be mixed with lemon or pineapple juice. “Vatapa” is a spicy stew made of fish or chicken, coconut milk, leftover bread, dried and fresh shrimps, roasted peanuts and cashew nuts, palm oil and other spices like onions, parsley and spring onion. “Caruru” is another stew made of fish, shrimps, okra (originally from West Africa) etc., that can be compared to the sauce that you use for the traditional “banku”. We don’t have the habit of eating plantain or yam, even though we have them as a plant.

The similarities in the culinary arts and food available are big, so that a Ghanaian probably will feel at home in Brazil, especially in the Northeast region.

Marco Aurelio Schaumloeffel
Brazilian Lecturer in Ghana


Source: Marco

The influence of the Portuguese Language in Ghana

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 A Brazilian in Ghana – I
SCHAUMLOEFFEL, Marco Aurelio. The African influence on Brazilian Music.. Daily Graphic, Accra, v. 149132, p. 14 – 14, 21 maio 2004.

The influence of the Portuguese Language in Ghana

Last year, when I arrived in Accra, I was surprised to hear some strange expressions in the English language, even though I’m a Brazilian and English is not my mother tongue. At the traffic lights I could hear people saying e.g. “dash me”. In the dictionary the meaning for the verb “dash” is “to shatter or smash”, which confused me. Searching for a solution, I arrived finally, to my surprise, at a logical explanation: it comes from the corrupted Portuguese “dás-me” (give me). The Portuguese were the first Europeans to arrive at the Gold Coast and build the Elmina Castle in 1482; they started an intensive and horrible slave trade. After that, Africa and Brazil built cultural and origin links, so that Brazil has nowadays, after Nigeria, the second biggest black population in the world. One of this links is the Tabom People, who came back to Accra in 1836, after they bought their own freedom in the Brazilian State of Bahia. Nowadays they have a Brazil House in James Town and roots to the Brazilian culture and language. Their own name Tabom comes from the Portuguese expression “Está bom” (“it’s ok” or “I’m fine”), because on their arrival, they could speak only Portuguese, so they greeted each other with “Como está?” (“How are you?”) to which the reply was “Está bom”, so that the people of Accra started to call them the Tabom People. All these facts can explain, why it is possible to find some influences of the Portuguese language in the everyday life of the Ghanaians. Another very common expression is “palaver” (gossip, to chat), that comes from “palavra” (word). “Panyar” or “panyarring” are terms from the Portuguese “apanhar” (to be beaten or to catch). In the standard English the word “fetish” comes from “feitiço”. “Sabola” is usual in Ewe and comes from the word “cebola” (onion); in Fanti people use the word “paano” for bread, what probably comes from our “pão”.

Family names of the Tabom People like Azumah, Nelson, Antônio or Faustino also show the Brazilian influence. Geographical names of Portuguese origin are very common in Ghana: Elmina (“A mina” – the mine), River Volta (“Rio Volta” – “River U-Turn”), Cape Three Points (“Cabo Três Pontas”), Cape Coast (“Cabo Corso” – in a free translation means “Cape of the Pirate”).

These few examples show us only a part of the influence of the Portuguese language in Ghana, however it is a sign that the own language changes and always displays the cultural, economic, political or social contacts that our people formerly made or is nowadays making. The Brazilian Portuguese also has a lot of influences of African languages, but this could be a theme for another article.

Marco Aurelio Schaumloeffel
Brazilian Lecturer in Ghana

P.S.: Portuguese is together with English and French one of the official languages of the ECOWAS.


Source: Marco

The African influence on Brazilian Music

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 A Brazilian in Ghana – III

SCHAUMLOEFFEL, Marco Aurelio. The African influence on Brazilian Music. Daily Graphic, Accra, v. 149132, p. 14 – 14, 21 maio 2004.

The African influence on Brazilian Music

To think of Brazilian Music without the African influence is simply impossible. The big melting pot Brazil has one of it roots in the African Continent. The contribution of the African element in Brazilian music is vast. Very important influences are the polyrhythmic variations and cadences, which brought, together with the Portuguese and Europeans melodies, new, unexpected creations. The combination of elements of different cultures is responsible for the typical Brazilian music styles like samba, gafiera, choro, pagode, maxixe, maracatu, forró, frevo, embolada, coco (dancing and singing on the beach), lundu (brought by the southern African tribe Bantos)  and the MPB (Música Popular Brasileira).

A lot of percussion instruments were brought from Africa to our country or new ones created by Afro-Brazilians. We have various drums with different sounds. The general name for this kind of drums in Brazil is atabaque. Other instruments are the ganzá, a type of rattle-box, the marimba (xylophone with wooden slats) and the cuíca, a type of small drum with a rod in the inside, that produces a strident sound, when vibrated with the palm of the hands, just to quote a few amongst them of African origin.

The fetishists ritual chants, dramatic dances like Congos, Congadas and Quilombos, the nasal twang in the Brazilian singing voice, some choreographic steps are also Afro-Brazilian musical manifestations.

Drumming, singing and dancing were certainly the first manifestations of the cultural treasure that the Africans brought to Brazil. Already in the year 1610, just a Century after the discovery of Brazil by the Portuguese, it is possible to read a report about an orchestra of 30 Africans musicians in Brazil. The great poet Mário de Andrade refers to the African music as the “pererequice rítmica dos africanos”, i.e. “the vibrating (like a tree frog) rhythm of the Africans”. In the USA they created another very important style for the History of the development of music: the jazz.

Samba is our national product. It comes from “semba” in the Banto language (southern Africa), what means dance and clap the hands in a circle. Apart from the big samba-party in the Sambódromo of Rio de Janeiro (a commercial and nowadays more for tourism purposes street Carnival celebration), the Carnival celebration is a huge democratic ball-room or street party in Brazil, where everybody can take part, sing, dance and enjoy the biggest national celebration, commemorated 40 days before of Easter. The five days of joy and fun start on Friday evening and end on Wednesday at noon. All types of dresses are allowed, from masks and plumes to long white dresses or simply beach shorts and t-shirts. In cities like Rio, São Paulo and Porto Alegre big samba academies, that we call samba schools, present every year a new parade. Each samba school chooses a theme to present, the choice is free, but it is normally an up-to-date choice about politics, environment, general Brazilian reality or an homage to a very important person of the present days or of the past.

In Ghana, I was surprised in the first days of my stay here, when I listened to music. I could find something like Cuban music in it. Researching and reading about it, I knew that in the 1960s and 1970s the West African pop music was influenced by Latin styles. So music is an intercultural manifestation. The band Osibisa recorded in 1976 the famous “Coffee song”, in which they mention Brazil.

One of the symbolic examples of the presence of the African roots in Brazilian Music is our present Minister of Culture, the famous musician Gilberto Gil. He is nowadays together with other Afro-Brazilians like Milton Nascimento, Daúde, Martinho da Vila, Sandra de Sá, Djavan, Jorge Aragão, Robertinho Silva, Jorge Ben amongst many others, proof that we would have only poor developed Brazilian music without African blood and rhythm in our veins. Throughout our History of music we have plenty famous and representative examples of Afro-Brazilians, who wrote decisive lines in the Brazilian music.

By the way: Ghanaians like to tell me that they like so much the Brazilian music, principally salsa and lambada. These types of music are not from Brazil, but this is another story.

Marco Aurelio Schaumloeffel

Brazilian Lecturer in Ghana


Source: Marco

The African influence in Brazil

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A Brazilian in Ghana – II

SCHAUMLOEFFEL, Marco Aurelio. African influence in Brazil. Daily Graphic, Accra, v. 149122, p. 7 – 7, 10 maio 2004.   

The African influence in Brazil

Last time I wrote about the influence of the Portuguese language in Ghana. This influence is certainly tiny, when compared with the African influences in Brazil. The Africans were brought to Brazil by the Portuguese because of the slave traffic. It started less than 50 years after the discovery of Brazil in 1500 by the Portuguese navigator Pedro Álvares Cabral and ended officially in 1831 by decree, but records prove that it continued principally from the Gold Coast (Ghana) and the so called by historians Slave Coast (Togo/Dahomey and Benin) on an illegal basis until 1888, when the slavery was definitively abolished in Brazil. In the most horrific part of our History, Africans, normally sold as captives by enemy African tribes, were used during more than 300 years by the Portuguese colonialists in Brazil as slave workers in the mining of gold and in the sugar cane and coffee farms, as domestic servants in the houses of the their masters or as urban workers. Many of them developed skills such as special agriculture techniques, water-well installation, carpenter, tailoring, metal works, especially gold smithing. The biggest part of Africans went to Brazil and never again returned to their homeland. The whole slave traffic History in the Gulf of Benin was very well studied by the Frenchman Pierre Verger and the life of the Africans in the New Continent by Brazilians like Nina Rodrigues. Studies show that approximately half of the Africans brought to Brazil were from West Africa, precisely from castles and ports in Ghana (one of the most significant was the Elmina Castle), Togo, Benin and Nigeria. Of course, captured slaves of the whole region were brought to these castles (Mali, Burkina Faso, Niger amongst others).

Africans from these regions were sent principally to the Brazilian State of Bahia. Logically we can conclude that the African influence in Brazil must be big, because the Portuguese not only dragged humans as working power away, those human beings also had a soul and knowledge in many spheres, so that they brought their own culture, habits, foods (way of cooking), costumes, music, dances and language to Brazil. The figures below show us more clearly the presence of Africans in Brazil: if we take as example the data of the Brazilian population in the year 1818, it shows that 2,515,000 inhabitants of a total of 3,817,000 were Africans or of African origin (66% of the total). Nowadays the distribution of our 170 Million Population is more or less the same.

Walking in the streets in Brazil, we can not clearly classify the origin of the population by their appearance, like it is here in Ghana. In my country in principle both oburoni and obibini are Brazilians. By the way: it is considered an offence in my country to call unknown people at the streets by their skin colour. We have skin colour graded from black to white, from red to yellow, from bright to dark brown.

Nowadays the influence of different African cultures in Brazil is very clear and enriching. We are a melting pot, not only of various African cultures, but also of cultures of various peoples from Europe (Portuguese, Italian, German, Polish, Spanish people amongst others) and Asia (specially Japanese and Chinese people). In the next articles, I will tackle the African influences in aspects like music (e.g. our present Minister of Culture is black, the famous singer Gilberto Gil), religion, language, arts, economy and others in the Brazilian society.

Marco Aurelio Schaumloeffel

Brazilian Lecturer in Ghana

Moskauer Medienkongress 2000. Internet: Konzeptionen Perspektiven

Bericht:

Moskauer Medienkongress 2000. Internet: Konzeptionen Perspektiven

SCHAUMLOEFFEL, Marco Aurelio. Moskauer Medienkongress 2000. Internet: Konzeptionen Perspektiven. Projekt, São Paulo – SP, v. 35, p. 26-26, 2000

Zweite Regionalkonferenz Zielsprache Deutsch zum Thema Deutsch an der Schwelle zum Dritten Jahrtausend in Havanna, Kuba vom 18.03.2000 bis zum 25.03.2000

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Bericht:

Zweite Regionalkonferenz Zielsprache Deutsch zum Thema Deutsch an der Schwelle zum Dritten Jahrtausend in Havanna, Kuba vom 18.03.2000 bis zum 25.03.2000

SCHAUMLOEFFEL, Marco Aurelio; BREDEMEIER, Maria Luísa Lenhardt . Zweite Regionalkonferenz Zielsprache Deutsch zum Thema Deutsch an der Schwelle zum Dritten Jahrtausend in Havanna, Kuba vom 18.03.2000 bis zum 25.03.2000. Projekt, Sao Paulo – SP, v. 35, p. 8-9, 2000.