Papiamento y la conexión brasileña establecida mediante los judíos sefardíes

Papiamentu and the Brazilian Connection Established through the Sephardic Jews (Papiamento y la conexión brasileña establecida mediante los judíos sefardíes)

Marco A. Schaumloeffel

Article published in English in Revista Letras, Universidad Nacional Costa Rica

Schaumloeffel, M. (2020). Papiamento y la conexión brasileña establecida mediante los judíos sefardíes. LETRAS1(67), 75-89. https://doi.org/10.15359/rl.1-67.4

Links: Schaumloeffel – Papiamentu and the Brazilian Connection Established through the Sephardic Jews – Letras Feb2020

Abstract

This study examines the linguistic contact between Papiamentu and Brazilian Portuguese established when the Sephardic Jews were expelled from Dutch Brazil and some of them relocated in Curaçao. Three lexical items of PA (yaya, ‘nanny, nursemaid’; bacoba, ‘banana’; and fulabola ‘forefinger, index finger’) are analysed and put into their historical context to show that their presence in Papiamentu can be attributed to the contact between Brazil and Curaçao due to the forced migration of the Sephardic Jews and their servants.

Resumen

El estudio examina el contacto lingüístico entre el papiamento y el portugués brasileño, establecido cuando los judíos sefardíes fueron expulsados del Brasil Holandés y algunos se trasladaron a la isla Curazao. Tres unidades lexicales del papiamento (yaya, ‘niñera, niñera’; bacoba, ‘banana’; y fulabola, ‘dedo índice) se analizan y ponen en su contexto histórico para mostrar que su presencia en papiamento es atribuible al contacto entre Brasil y Curazao, con la forzada migración de los judíos sefardíes y sus criados.

Keywords: Papiamentu, Brazilian Portuguese, origins of Papiamentu, Sephardic Jew

Palabras clave: papiamento, portugués brasileño, orígenes del papiamento, judíos sefardíes

Citas

Buarque de Holanda Ferreira, Aurélio. Novo dicionário eletrônico da língua portuguesa. Rio de Janeiro: Nova Fronteira, 2009.

Câmara Cascudo, Luís da. Dicionário do folclore brasileiro. Rio de Janeiro: Ediouro, 2003. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/335622.

Duarte, Rojane. “A origem e o significado de iaiá.” Ciberdúvidas da língua portuguesa, 2007, 30 Nov 2017, <https://ciberduvidas.iscte-iul.pt/consultorio/perguntas/a-origem-e-o-significado-de-iaia/20689>.

Goodman, Morris. The Portuguese Element in the American Creoles. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1987.

Holm, John. An Introduction to Pidgins and Creoles. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139164153.

Houaiss, Antônio. Dicionário eletrônico Houaiss da língua portuguesa. 3.0. Rio de Janeiro: Objetiva, 2009. DOI: https://doi.org/10.11606/d.8.2009.tde-30112009-151358

Jacobs, Bart. “The Upper Guinea Origins of Papiamentu Linguistic and Historical Evidence.” Diachronica 26, 3 (2009). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1075/dia.26.3.02jac.

Jacobs, Bart. Origins of a Creole: The History of Papiamentu and its African Ties. Berlin: De Gruyter, 2012. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/9781614511076.

Johnen, Thomas. “Frederiks, Bernardus Th. J. (2009 [1859]): Woordenlijst der in der landstaal van Curaçao meest gebruikelijke woorden; alphabetisch neu geordnet mit dem heutigen Sprachstand verglichen und etymologisiert von Johannes Kramer, Hamburg: Buske (Kreolische Bibliothek; 22),” Lusorama 97-98 (2014): 254-265.

Johnen, Thomas. Bakoba pa makaku: Sobre a problemática dos africanismos na lexicografia do Papiamentu (2014), manuscript.

Karner, Frances P. The Sephardics of Curacao: A Study of Socio-Cultural Patterns in Flux. Assen: Van Gorcum, 1969.

Kouwenberg, Silvia. “Papiamentu Structure Dataset,” Atlas of Pidgin and Creole Language Structures Online. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, 29 Jan 2017, <http://apics-online.info/contributions/47>.

Kramer, Johannes. Kleines etymologisches Wörterbuch Papiamento-Deutsch Deutsch-Papiamento. Hamburg: Buske, 2013.

Martinus, Frank. The Kiss of a Slave: Papiamentu’s West-African Connections. Amsterdam: Universiteit van Amsterdam, 2004.

Pessoa de Castro, Yeda. Falares africanos na Bahia: Um vocabulário afro-brasileiro. Rio de Janeiro: Topbooks, 2001.

Ratzlaff, Betty. Papiamentu/Ingles dikshonario, English/Papiamentu Dictionary. Kralendijk: TWR Dictionary Foundation/Science Press, 1995.

Rossel, Gerda. Taxonomic-Linguistic Study of Plantain in Africa. Leiden: Research School CNWS, 1998.

Rupert, Linda M. Creolization and Contraband: Curaçao in the Early Modern Atlantic World. Athens, Georgia: University of Georgia Press, 2012. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/ tla.12005_4.

Salles, Vicente. Vocabulário crioulo: contribuição do negro ao falar regional amazônico. Belém: Instituto de Artes do Pará, 2003.

Van Putte, Florimon. “Dede Pikina, de Braziliaanse Connectie En de Yaya,” Kristòf XII, 4 (2003).

O contato linguístico no Sul do Brasil – o caso do Hunsrückisch

O contato linguístico no Sul do Brasil – o caso do Hunsrückisch

Marco Aurelio Schaumloeffel

1) Palestra de encerramento “O contato linguístico no Sul do Brasil – o caso do Hunsrückisch” do VIII Encontro Internacional do Grupo de Estudos de Línguas em Contato – GELIC, realizado em Belém/PA, de 20 a 22 de novembro de 2019, na Universidade do Estado do Pará – UEPA.

Apresentação PowerPoint: solicite por e-mail.

2) Participação em mesa redonda: Constituição de corpora e a pesquisa sobre o contato linguístico em variedades de fala: questões teóricas e metodológicas, com Bruno Rocha (UFMG), Edenize Ponzo Peres (UFES), Marco Aurélio Schaumloeffel (UWI)

Website do evento: https://www.even3.com.br/viiigelic/ 

Syntactic Interferences of Portuguese in Brazilian Hunsrückisch

Syntactic Interferences of Portuguese in Brazilian Hunsrückisch

Marco Aurelio Schaumloeffel

Presentation at the 19th Annual Conference of the Association of Portuguese and Spanish-Lexified Creoles & the Summer Conference of the Society for Pidgin and Creole Linguistics
 
17-19 June 2019
 
Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal

PowerPoint of presentation: request by e-mail

 

Abstract

Syntactic Interferences of Portuguese in Brazilian Hunsrückisch

Marco Aurelio Schaumloeffel
Brazilian Studies, The University of the West Indies, Cave Hill Campus, Barbados

Brazilian Hunsrückisch (HR) is the most widely spoken variety of German in Brazil. German immigration to Brazil started in 1824 and lasted for over a century. Today, it is estimated that there are between 1.2 million Altenhofen 2017) and 3 million (Ethnologue 2018) native speakers of the Brazilian variety of Hunsrückisch. The almost 200-year-old contact situation
with Brazilian Portuguese (PT) created a favourable environment for linguistic interferences (cf. Weinreich 1953; Juhász 1980) in both languages. As result, it is common to find grammatical, lexical and semantic interferences of PT in the varieties of HR (cf. Sambaquy-
Wallner 1998; Altenhofen 1996; Damke 1997, among others). The focus of this paper is to verify the existence of syntactic interferences of PT in HR and to do an unprecedented analysis of these interferences in the HR variety spoken in the community of Boa Vista do Herval, also known as Speckhof in HR, located in the mountainous region of the Northeast of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil. Data collected from 36 speakers selected according to sociolinguistic criteria based on age, gender, level of schooling, religion and income were transcribed and analysed. The main syntactic interference found in the data examined in this paper is the calquing of the verb position from the PT syntactic structure, i.e., the change for some speakers in the position of the verb in HR from a typical HR behaviour, also in line with standard German, to a verb position typical for PT. Sentences presenting this change will be analysed, showing that there effectively are syntactic interferences of PT in the HR variety spoken in Speckhof.

 

Papiamentu and the Brazilian connection established through the Sephardic Jews

Papiamentu and the Brazilian connection established through the Sephardic Jews

Marco Aurelio Schaumloeffel
Presentation at the 22nd Biennial Conference of the The Society for Caribbean Linguistics (SCL)
Heredia/Limón, Costa Rica 5th-12th August 2018
Conference Programme
Conference website

Abstract

Papiamentu and the Brazilian connection established through the Sephardic Jews

A direct historical connection between Curaçao and Brazil was established due to the resettlement of Sephardic Jews, their assistants, and their free and enslaved African servants from Dutch Brazil to the Caribbean after the Dutch were expelled by the Portuguese from the Northeast of Brazil. Portuguese-speaking Jews from Brazil began to arrive in Curaçao in 1659. This period coincides with the period between 1634 and 1677, considered crucial for the formation of Papiamentu (Jacobs, The Upper Guinea origins of Papiamentu Linguistic and historical evidence 353). Portuguese was one of the languages spoken by the Sephardi in Curaçao. From the beginning, the Jewish congregation in Curaçao even used Portuguese for their religious services; they only changed to Spanish in the nineteenth century (Holm, An Introduction to Pidgins and Creoles 78). The historical facts involving the dislocation of people from Pernambuco, Brazil to Curaçao naturally lead to the assumption of a possible influence of these Portuguese-speaking Sephardic Jews and their Afro-Brazilian servants in the formation of Papiamentu (PA). Although the current body of research in PA completely discards the hypothesis of a Brazilian origin of Papiamentu, as postulated in 1987 by Goodman (The Portuguese element in the American Creoles), the intention of this presentation is to show that there are effective links between these two areas and that there probably was some secondary degree of influence from Brazilian Portuguese during the formation process of PA. Even if they existed, it certainly would be difficult to prove that some of the PA features present in the deeper layers of the language could be specifically attributed to an influence from Brazilian Portuguese or the Portuguese spoken by the Sephardi, as it probably would be difficult to clearly set them apart from the features incorporated into PA that are also present in other Portuguese variants and in West African Portuguese-based creoles. However, specific lexical items that will be discussed in this presentation show that their transfer to PA may have happened because of the dislocation of Sephardic Jews and their servants from Brazil to Curaçao. Traces of at least one of those lexical items can also be found in French Guiana and in Suriname, the final destination for some of those expelled from Brazil or the temporary destination as place of passage for others that later headed to Curaçao. Some lexical items, including PA yaya ‘nanny, nursemaid’, bacoba ‘banana’ and fulabola ‘forefinger, index finger’, will be analysed to show that their presence in PA can probably be specifically attributed to the historical connection created between Brazil and Curaçao due to the forced migration of the Sephardic Jews and their servants.

Considerations on the reciprocity and reflexivity in Papiamentu


Considerations on the reciprocity and reflexivity in Papiamentu

Captura de tela inteira 29072016 164536-001

Marco Aurelio Schaumloeffel
Presentation at the 21st Biennial Conference of the The Society for Caribbean Linguistics (SCL)
Kingston, Jamaica 1st-6th August 2016
Conference Programme
Conference website
References

Abstract

Considerations on the reciprocity and reflexivity in Papiamentu

The Ibero-Romance clitic pronouns were not incorporated into Papiamentu (PA). Instead, PA has today several different possibilities to form reflexives, which replaced the Ibero-Romance clitics:  paña ‘cloth’, kurpa ‘body’, null reflexive, possessive + kurpa, object pronoun, object pronoun + mes < Portuguese mesmo ‘self’, and possessive pronoun + mes (cf. Muysken 1993:286). At least two other strategies of reflexivisation or quasi-reflexivisation are not discussed by Muysken: the use of kabes ‘head’ and of the reciprocal otro ‘other’. While some of those types of reflexives are a common strategy of reflexivisation in several creole languages (Muysken and Smith 1994:271-288), some of them can also be found in other Portuguese-based creoles. Therefore, this might indicate that there is a linguistic link between PA and those creoles when it comes to the realisation of this category of function words.

The aim of this presentation is to ponder on how specifically the reflexives with kurpa, possessive + kurpa, kabes, otro and mes are realised in PA and compare them to their equivalents in other Portuguese and Spanish-based creoles in order to establish if there are linguistic ties that connect PA to them when it comes to reflexivity.

Reflexives with kurpa and possessive + kurpa are also found in the Guinea Bissau and Casamance Portuguese creoles (GBC), which in turn are usually correlated with a Kwa / Bantu substrate (Jacobs 2012:130-131), but are also present in Asian creoles like Papiá Kristang (PK) and Zamboangueño (Holm 2000:225). Reflexives or quasi-reflexives can also be formed with PA kabes, which also encounters equivalents in GBC, Cape Verdean Portuguese-based creoles and PK. Another shared feature of PA with GBC and PK is the use of ‘other’ to express reciprocity, whereas a similar syntax for PA mes can also be found in the Cape Verdean creole of São Vicente, in Principense and in PK.

 

Interestingly, the analysis of the available data always points towards the same direction, since the current realisation of reflexivity in PA seems to be etymologically, and sometimes even through its grammatical functions, linked to other Portuguese-based creoles and to Portuguese, rather than to Spanish or Spanish-based creoles. Holm raised two possibilities for the presence of a reflexive with ‘body’ in Asian creoles, which also can be extended to the other reflexives mentioned above: that they either spread by diffusion or arose independently through the influence of other substrate languages (2000:225). Based on their similar realisation, especially in PK, the former rather seems to be the case.

Why do Papiamento and a Creole Language Spoken in Malaysia have so many similarities?

Why do Papiamento and a Creole Language Spoken in Malaysia have so many similarities?

Two presentations at the Biblioteca Nacional Aruba, Oranjestad, Aruba

Lecture in the series “Lifelong Learninig – Academic Lectures” – May, 17 2016

Diario, 09 May 2016, p. 44

IMG-20160509-WA0000

Invitation

IMG-20160510-WA0002

Diario, 2 June 2016, p. 23

IMG-20160603-WA0000

Some pictures of the two events:

2016-05-20 01.43.35 2016-05-22 14.33.24
2016-05-20 01.43.42 2016-05-22 14.32.46
2016-05-22 14.35.54 2016-05-22 14.33.46
2016-05-22 14.33.09

Abstract

Why do Papiamento and a Creole Language Spoken in Malaysia have so many similarities?

The aim of this presentation is to make relevant considerations on the origin of Papiamento (PA). The discussion on the origins of PA still is object of controversy. Some scholars classify it as a creole language of Spanish origins and others as a creole of Portuguese origins. Recent historical and linguistic evidence suggests that PA owes its origins to the West African Portuguese creoles (cf. Jacobs, Origins of a Creole 2012).

In this presentation, the author provides further evidence in favour of the Portuguese origins of PA by doing an investigation on the historical and linguistic links existing between PA and Papiá Kristang (PK). Historical links are important, but linguistic data is the most reliable evidence of possible genetic ties between creoles. It may seem strange to compare a creole language that developed in Southeast Asia with a creole spoken in former Dutch colonies in the Caribbean, since they are worlds apart. PK, a Portuguese creole spoken in Malacca, Malaysia, is not directly linked to the West African Portuguese creoles like PA, but is a Portuguese creole undoubtedly unrelated to Spanish. This fact turns PK into an interesting tool of comparison to verify possible similarities and correspondences in the PA and the PK grammatical categories, and to establish if PA carries basic Portuguese creole features. The analysis is based on linguistic data from grammars, descriptions and texts in PA and in PK. The focus are grammatical similarities and correspondences that are observed in the structure of both creoles, and the implications these have to determine a possible common origin.

To achieve this objective, a comparison of important linguistic features in the two languages will be made. The evidence suggests that the origins of PA cannot be completely analysed and understood if vital historical and linguistic links to the Portuguese language are ignored. It remains open to discussion whether these ties were solely formed via West Africa and the Portuguese creoles spoken there or not. However, this presentation intends to discard any hypothesis that excludes the fundamental role Portuguese and Portuguese creoles played in the formation of PA.

 

Decalques do Português no Hunsrückisch falado no Rio Grande do Sul

Decalques do Português no Hunsrückisch falado no Rio Grande do Sul

Marco Aurelio Schaumloeffel

Apresentação durante o VI Encontro do Grupo de Estudos de Línguas em Contato
7 a 9 de dezPictureembro de 2015, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador – BA

 

 

 

Resumos (Página 57)
Site do evento
PowerPoint da Apresentação: favor solicitar por e-mail
Além da apresentação, também ocorreu a participação no minicurso ‘Language contact/genesis and grammatical development” ministrado por Claire Lefebvre, Université du Québec à Montréal, Canadá.

Abstract

Decalques do Português no Hunsrückisch falado no Rio Grande do Sul

Marco Aurelio Schaumloeffel
Brazilian Studies, The University of the West Indies, Cave Hill Campus, Barbados

O objetivo deste estudo é fazer o levantamento e verificar como ocorre o processo de formação de decalques na variante alemã Hunsrückisch (HR) falada em uma comunidade bilíngue do interior do Rio Grande do Sul. O uso concomitante do Português (PT) e do HR gera um ambiente propício à interferência linguística (cf. Weinreich 1953 10; Juhász 1980) recíproca. Os decalques são o resultado sedimentado das interferências linguísticas que ocorrem em comunidades bilíngues (Schaumloeffel 2007 47) e consistem, especificamente neste estudo, na tradução de empréstimos, na ressemantização (Biderman 2006 36) de termos vindos do PT. Em vez de simplesmente serem adotadas as palavras ou as expressões do PT, como, p.ex., na apropriação lexical, é feita a substituição e elementos correspondentes da língua receptora passam a ser usados. Quando ocorre o decalque, não ocorrem apenas processos semânticos, mas também sintáticos e pragmáticos. O significado no HR permanece equivalente ao do PT; o resultado, porém, é a criação de uma estrutura gramatical ou de uma expressão ou termo antes inexistentes no HR. A análise dos decalques no HR foi feita a partir dos dados levantados em gravações com 36 moradores da localidade de Speckhof, no município de Santa Maria do Herval – RS. Os informantes foram selecionados de acordo com critérios sociolinguísticos como faixas de idade, sexo, grau de escolaridade, religião e fonte de renda com o objetivo de verificar se há graus diferentes de ocorrência de decalques entre os diversos estratos estabelecidos. O estudo verificou a existência de decalques da estrutura sintática, com o verbo em posição diferente da normalmente exigida (P2) no HR, e a ocorrência relativamente produtiva de decalques semânticos provenientes de expressões lexicalizadas do PT.

 

Brasilianisches Hunsrückisch schreiben? / Escrever o Hunsrückisch brasileiro?

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Brasilianisches Hunsrückisch schreiben? / Escrever o Hunsrückisch brasileiro? Perguntas e discussões essenciais.
Marco Aurelio Schaumloeffel


Präsentation während des 9. Brasilianischen Deutschlehrerkongress – Deutsch (über)Brücken – 22.-24. Juli 2015
Universidade do Vale do Rio dos Sinos – São Leopoldo – RS – Brasilien


Programm + Abstracts ISSN 2446-9092 (Abstract auf Seite 30)
Website des Kongresses

PowerPoint der Präsentation: bitte per E-Mail anfragen/solicitar por e-mail

Audio-Datei/Arquivo de áudio com as 10 frases estudadas.

Abstract
Brasilianisches Hunsrückisch schreiben?
Marco Aurelio Schaumloeffel
Brazilian Studies, The University of the West Indies, Cave Hill Campus, Barbados

Ziel dieser Präsentation ist grundsätzlich zu diskutieren, warum und ob man das brasilianische Hunsrückisch (Riograndensisch, Katharinensisch und ihre Varianten) schreiben soll. Anhand dieser Frage, werden die Vor- und Nachteile einer eventuellen Festlegung einer Schreibweise analysiert und was diese unbedingt im Kontext der Komplexität und Vielfalt der Varianten beinhalten und berücksichtigen müsste. Beispiele aus zwei komplett unterschiedlichen Kontexten, nämlich aus der Schweiz und den ABC-Inseln (Aruba, Bonaire und Curaçao in der Karibik), wo Schweizerdeutsch bzw. Papiamentu gesprochen wird, zeigen auf mögliche Wege zu Lösungen auf diese Frage. Bereits existierende Vorschläge von Schreibweisen für das brasilianische Hunsrückisch werden unter den erstellten Kriterien auf ihre Anwendbarkeit und Funktionalität getestet und analysiert.

A Comparison of Relators in Papiamentu and Papiá Kristang

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A Comparison of Relators in Papiamentu and Papiá Kristang
Marco Aurelio Schaumloeffel

Presentation at the SPCL + ACBLPE 2015 Conference
Graz, Austria 7th-9th July 2015
Conference Program
Conference Booklet with Abstracts
Conference website
References

Abstract

A Comparison of Relators in Papiamentu and Papiá Kristang

Papiá Kristang is a Portuguese-based creole mainly spoken in Malacca, Malaysia, whereas Papiamentu is a creole mainly spoken in the Caribbean islands of Aruba, Bonaire and Curaçao (ABC Islands). The origin of Papiamentu still is controversial, since some scholars claim that it has genetic linguistic ties with Spanish, while others have sound evidence of its Portuguese origin, especially due to its links with West African Portuguese-based creoles (cf. Jacobs, Origins of a Creole, 2012, amongst others). The comparative study of the features of Papiamentu with Papiá Kristang still is a widely unexplored field. It is uncontroversial that Papiá Kristang is an Asian Portuguese-based creole with virtually no influences from Spanish or Spanish creoles. Therefore, if there are any similarities between Papiamentu and Papiá Kristang, those can certainly not be attributed to a Spanish common base in both creoles, but rather to another common base that they share, i.e., the Portuguese language. The main aim of this presentation is to compare and analyse relators in Papiamentu and Papiá Kristang. Relators are function words and as such pertain to the closed class words, which are much less likely to be replaced in borrowability or relexification situations if compared to content words, classified as open class words. The identification of the origin of relators can serve as indication towards linguistic genetic ties that might exist between creoles and the languages that were the base for their formation. The analysed relators will also be contrasted with the same features found in some other Portuguese and Spanish-based creoles in order to establish grammatical similarities and differences, and in doing so to investigate the origins of Papiamentu and the presence of Portuguese and Portuguese creole features in this creole language that today is recognized by the Dutch government in Bonaire and has official status as native language in Aruba and Curaçao.


Source: Marco

The multifunctionality of Papiamentu pa and its similarities with Brazilian Vernacular Portuguese

The multifunctionality of Papiamentu pa and its similarities with Brazilian Vernacular Portuguese

Marco Aurelio Schaumloeffel
Presentation at the ACBLPE (Association of Portuguese and Spanish-Lexified Creoles) Annual Meeting. Stockholms Universitet. Stockholm, Sweden. June 13-15, 2017
Conference programme
Conference website
Abstracts (pages 24-25)
References

Abstract

The multifunctionality of Papiamentu pa and its similarities with Brazilian Vernacular Portuguese

The Papiamentu (PA) lexical item pa can cover several functions, operating as preposition, mood marker and complementizer. Its functions actually clearly exceed those of its equivalent Portuguese lexical item para, not only covering the semantic load of para, but also that of por and a. An equivalent multifunctionality for this lexical item can also be found in other Portuguese-based creole languages like the Upper Guinea Portuguese Creoles (cf. Jacobs, Origins of a Creole) and the Asian Portuguese creole Papiá Kristang. When analysing the PA lexical item pa, Lefebvre and Therrien (On the properties of Papiamentu pa: Synchronic and diachronic perspectives, 2007) establish that it can perform fifteen different functions. Out of those, they only find five that have an equivalent realisation in current standard Portuguese. Lefebvre and Therrien believe that PA pa is derived from Portuguese para, and that its other properties would be derived from corresponding lexical entries in the PA substrate languages, more specifically from the properties of the Fongbe preposition and complementizer , and the mood marker and complementizer . However, when Brazilian Portuguese, and especially Brazilian Vernacular Portuguese (BVP) is considered, the degree of equivalence with the PA functions of pa changes dramatically. The aims of this presentation are to show the high degree of similarity that exists between PA and BVP when it comes to the functions of PA pa, and to make considerations as to why this sharp discrepancy exists if compared to the results found by Lefebvre and Therrien for current standard PT. Apart from that, the secondary aim is to ponder why this multifunctionality and equivalence in some functions can also be found in Papiá Kristang, a Portuguese-based creole from another branch that is knowingly not directly related to PA or to the West African Portuguese-based creoles.