Tabom: O Brasil longe do Brasil – Tabom: Brazil away from Brazil

Entrevista concedida à revista Atlântico / Interview for Atlantico Magazine

Instituto Brasil África / Brazil Africa Institute

Tabom: O Brasil longe do Brasil – Tabom: Brazil away from Brazil. Atlantico. Year 3. Number 11. July 2017. Pages 46-50. ISSN 2447-8016. Fortaleza, Brazil.


Link para todas as revistas/Link to all magazines:

Link para esta edição / Link to this edition:




A formação do Papiamento, suas origens portuguesas, africano-ocidentais e brasileiras


Artigo publicado

A formação do papeamento, suas origens portuguesas, africano-ocidentais e brasileiras
Marco Aurelio Schaumloeffel

(Syn)thesis,v. 7, n. 2 (2014), ISSN 1414-915X
DOI  10.12957/synthesis.2014.19663
UERJ, Rio de Janeiro

Artigo em pdf

Obs.: a publicação (Syn)thesis alterou o título original, revisou o texto e preferiu usar o termo “papeamento”, sem nova consulta após a submissão do artigo. Embora alguns dicionários aceitem o termo “papeamento” e ele também esteja correto, prefiro usar os termos mais correntes: “papiamento” na escrita de Aruba (assim também consta p.ex. no Dicionário Houaiss para o Português) ou “papiamentu” na escrita adotada em Curaçao e Bonaire. Artigo publicado em dezembro de 2015.

O objetivo deste artigo é investigar as conexões históricas que contribuíram para a formação do Papiamentu, uma língua crioula falada nas ilhas caribenhas de Aruba, Bonaire e Curaçao (ABC). Através desta análise, pretende-se mostrar que as ligações históricas do Papiamentu indicam que sua origem não se deve ao Espanhol, como muitas vezes é erradamente propagado, mas sim ao Português e aos crioulos portugueses. Estas ligações foram estabelecidas através do tráfico de escravos, o qual usava variantes e crioulos do Português como língua franca de comércio, e através das conexões diretas e indiretas estabelecidas entre as ilhas ABC, a Europa, a África Ocidental e o Brasil.
Palavras-chave: Papiamentu, História, Formação, Línguas Crioulas

The objective of this article is to investigate the historic links that contributed to the formation of Papiamentu, a creole language spoken in the Caribbean islands of Aruba, Bonaire and Curaçao (ABC). The intention is to show through this analysis that the historic links of Papiamentu do not point towards a Spanish origin, as many times erroneously disseminated, but to Portuguese and Portuguese creoles. These links were established through the slave trade, which used Portuguese varieties and creoles as their trade lingua franca, and through the direct and indirect connections established between the ABC Islands, Europe, West Africa and Brazil.
Key words: Papiamentu, History, Formation, Creole Languages
Title in English: Formation of Papiamentu, its Portuguese, West African and Brazilian Origins

Source: Marco

Translating the Presence of Portuguese in a Caribbean Creole

Translating the Presence of Portuguese in a Caribbean Creole. Why are there similarities between an Asian Portuguese Creole and Papiamentu?

Marco APicture. Schaumloeffel

Presentation at the Translating Creolization Symposium – May 27-29, 2015. The University of the West Indies, Cave Hill Campus, Barbados

Website of the event:


Papiamentu (PA) is a creole spoken as main language by the majority of the population in Aruba, Bonaire and Curaçao, and is official language in the first and in the latter. The origin of PA is controversial; a group of scholars attributes it to Spanish, due to its current lexical and phonetic similarities with Spanish, whereas another group sees linguistic genetic ties with Portuguese.

The aim of this presentation is to investigate the historical and linguistic links that might connect PA to Portuguese. Whereas historical links set the stage for eventual ties, possible grammatical commonalities in the very fabric that makes up the structure of PA may be strong indications of a genetic connection to its ancestor. Recent historical and linguistic evidence suggests that PA owes its origins to the West African Portuguese creoles. To further strengthen this evidence, this presentation will analyse key grammar elements such as function words, relators, verbal system and Time-Modality-Aspect markers, which are core elements and very strong indications of genetic ties, given their very low borrowability in contexts of relexification and formation of creoles. The analysis is done by means of comparing these PA core elements with those found in Papiá Kristang (PK), an Asian Portuguese Creole spoken mainly by only a few hundred persons in Malacca, Malaysia. It is consensus that PK is undoubtedly linguistically unrelated to Spanish. If there are similarities between PA and PK, then these can therefore not be attributed to Spanish. Although PK is used as tool of comparison, parallels with Spanish, Portuguese and other Spanish and Portuguese-based creoles will be made to establish a more comprehensive picture of possible linguistic ties between PA and Portuguese.

The evidence suggests that PA cannot be comprehensively analysed and understood if vital historical and linguistic links of this Caribbean creole to the Portuguese language are ignored.

Afro-Brazilian Diaspora in West Africa: The Tabom in Ghana

Chapter in Book

Afro-Brazilian Diaspora in West Africa: The Tabom in Ghana
Marco AureliPictureo Schaumloeffel

Book – Another Black Like Me: The Construction of Identities and Solidarity in the African Diaspora. Edited by Elaine Pereira Rocha and Nielson Rosa Bezerra
ISBN-13: 978-1-4438-7178-5
01 Feb 2015
Pages: 185-199


Book Description
This book brings together authors from different institutions and perspectives and from researchers specialising in different aspects of the experiences of the African Diaspora from Latin America. It creates an overview of the complexities of the lives of Black people over various periods of history, as they struggled to build lives away from Africa in societies that, in general, denied them the basic right of fully belonging, such as the right of fully belonging in the countries where, by choice or force of circumstance, they lived. Another Black Like Me thus presents a few notable scenes from the long history of Blacks in Latin America: as runaway slaves seen through the official documentation denouncing as illegal those who resisted captivity; through the memoirs of a slave who still dreamt of his homeland; reflections on the status of Black women; demands for citizenship and kinship by Black immigrants; the fantasies of Blacks in the United States about the lives of Blacks in Brazil; a case study of some of those who returned to Africa and had to build a new identity based on their experiences as slaves; and the abstract representations of race and color in the Caribbean. All of these provide the reader with a glimpse of complex phenomena that, though they cannot be generalized in a single definition of blackness in Latin America, share the common element of living in societies where the definition of blackness was flexible, there were no laws of racial segregation, and where the culture on one hand tolerates miscegenation, and on the other denies full recognition of rights to Blacks.

Sample and contents
– Website:

What do Aruba, Bonaire and Curaçao have in common with Malacca? The historical and linguistic links between Papiamentu and Papiá Kristang.


What do Aruba, Bonaire and Curaçao have in common with Malacca? Historical and linguistic links between Papiamentu and Papiá Kristang.
Marco Aurelio Schaumloeffel

Handout SCL 2014 – Marco Schaumloeffel
Prezi Presentation

Abstracts SCL 2014 (p. 56)

References used to prepare presentation

What do Aruba, Bonaire and Curaçao have in common with Malacca? Historical and linguistic links between Papiamentu and Papiá Kristang.

The discussion on the origin of Papiamentu (PA) still is controversial, since it is classified by some scholars as a Spanish Creole and by others as a Portuguese Creole. However, recent historical and linguistic evidence trace back its origins to West African Portuguese creoles (Jacobs 2012, among others). This leaves little space to speculate if PA owes its origins to a variety or varieties of Spanish, but there still are many scholars who claim that PA is supposedly of Spanish origin.
The aim of this paper is to provide further evidence in favour of the Portuguese origin of PA by doing a unique investigation on the historical and linguistic links existing between PA and Papiá Kristang (PK). Historical links set the context, but linguistic data is naturally the most reliable evidence of possible genetic ties between creoles. At the first instance, it seems strange to compare a Portuguese creole  developed in Southeast Asia with another creole spoken in former Dutch colonies in the Caribbean, since they apparently are worlds apart.
Nevertheless, PK can ideally be used in this context, since it is a well-known and studied Portuguese creole that has virtually no Spanish influence. And if there is virtually no Spanish influence in PK, then the comparison between PA and PK may be an ideal tool to establish if PA really carries Portuguese features. Only a careful analysis can reveal if grammatical similarities are present in the structural fabric of both creoles.
The linguistic features that PA shares with PK will be analysed and compared in this paper through four relevant aspects of grammatical categories: Formation and use of TMA markers (Tense, Mood, Aspect), the multifunctionality of the lexical item ‘ku’, word reduplication and its grammatical functions, and analysis of two auxiliary verbs.
The evidence indicates that the origins of PA cannot be comprehensively analysed and understood if vital historical and linguistic links to the Portuguese language are ignored. These ties were formed via West Africa and the Portuguese creoles spoken there, and possibly also influenced by the immigration of Sephardic Jews and their servants from Dutch Brazil to Curaçao. Despite not being genetically linked to West African Portuguese creoles, but because it is a Portuguese creole undoubtedly unrelated to Spanish, PK acts as an ideal tool of comparison in this case. As result, this paper definitively refutes any hypothesis that excludes the fundamental role of Portuguese and Portuguese creoles in the formation of PA.

Tabom. A Comunidade Afro-Brasileira do Gana


Tabom. A Comunidade Afro-Brasileira do Gana
Marco Aurelio Schaumloeffel

Lançado em 2014 pela Geração Editorial – ISBN 9781847990136

Saiba mais aqui:
Compre aqui: ou

Tabom. A Comunidade Afro-Brasileira do Gana

TabomO primeiro livro sobre a história dos tabons, a comunidade afro-brasileira do Gana. Eles voltaram à África Ocidental entre 1829 e 1836. “Este livro parece pequeno, mas possui muitas portas, como se fosse um casarão. Elas se abrem para várias e diferentes paisagens e nos deixam ver, primeiro, de fraque e cartola e, depois, envoltas em belo pano kente, as figuras humanas que as povoaram e cujas histórias os atuais tabons repetem de cor. Se, em suas páginas, aprendemos muito sobre o grupo tabom, graças ao cuidado e à inteligência com que Marco Aurelio Schaumloeffel soube ouvir e ler, elas nos pedem que saibamos mais.” (Alberto da Costa e Silva).
ISBN 1448645158 EAN 9781448645152

O livro impresso pode ser encontrado aqui: Tabom. A Comunidade Afro-Brasileira do Gana

Tabom – A Comunidade Afro-Brasileira do Gana


Meu livro sobre os tabons finalmente ganha uma edição brasileira, lançada como e-book pela Geração Editorial.
Lançamento: abril de 2014


“Tabom”, de Marco Aurelio Schaumloeffel, é mais um lançamento de abril da Geração. O livro conta a história dos tabons, a comunidade afro-brasileira do Gana.

Saiba mais ~ (Kindle/Amazon)
Compre aqui ~

Source: Marco

Participação na mesa-redonda "A diáspora africana e a construção do Brasil"

A diáspora africana e a construção do Brasil

PictureParticipação na mesa-redonda “A diáspora africana e a construção do Brasil”, com os professores Joel Rufino dos Santos (RJ) e Rafael Sanzio (DF). A mesa-redonda fez parte do Seminário “Narrativas Contemporâneas da História do Brasil”, da II Bienal Brasil do Livro e da Leitura. O evento ocorreu de 11 a 21 de abril de 2014, em Brasília, Brasil. Eu falei sobre a fascinante história dos Tabons e como eles formam uma diáspora afro-brasileira no Gana.
Website do evento:
Programação do dia 15.04.2014: programação


Ariano Suassuna foi o grande homenageado da Bienal. A homenagem foi linda e merecida. Este foi provavelmente o último evento literário do qual participou, infelizmente faleceu poucas semanas depois.


1) Guia UOL
2) Acha Brasília

Os Judeus do Papa – The Pope’s Jews


Os Judeus do Papa


Tradução do livro “The Pope’s Jews”, de Gordon Thomas, do inglês para o português. Detalhes podem ser encontrados aqui:




Folha de São Paulo:

Os judeus do papa 
Autor: Gordon Thomas
Tradução: Marco Aurelio  Schaumloeffel
Gênero: Literatura estrangeira – História
Págs: 392
ISBN: 9788581301273   E-book ISBN: 9788581301280
Selo: Geração


A II Guerra Mundial eclodiu na Europa. O exército nazista avan­ça pelo continente anexando e massacrando, deixando o rastro de sangue que marcou o século XX. No Vaticano, o papa Pio XII observa os horrores dos combates e tem que definir a posi­ção da Igreja perante o mundo. Mas ele não declara repúdio a Hitler nem se coloca ao lado dos Aliados — simplesmente silencia e a História lhe confere o título de papa omisso.

Por trás do silêncio havia um segredo agora revelado por documentos ofi­ciais secretos. Pio XII organizou uma ampla rede de ajuda humanitária para os judeus de toda a Europa. Sob orientação dele, padres e freiras arriscaram a vida fornecendo abrigo nos mosteiros e conventos a milhares de judeus. Pio XII doou ouro do próprio Vaticano para ajudar os judeus romanos e es­condeu milhares deles em sua residência de verão, enquanto Roma era ocupa­da e bombardeada pelos alemães.

Os judeus do papa é um dos melhores livros históricos já escritos. Baseado em uma rica pesquisa documental, é uma obra indispensável aos leitores que querem entender o que realmente aconteceu em Roma sob a liderança do injustiçado papa Pio XII.

Sobre o autor

Gordon Thomas é escritor e jorna­lista investigativo. Já publicou mais de 50 li­vros na Europa, ultrapassando a marca de 45 milhões de cópias, o que lhe rendeu prêmios importantes e o reconhecimento como um dos escritores mais surpreendentes da atualidade.

The Portuguese, West African and Brazilian Origins of Papiamentu


Abstract of presentation done at the 19th Biennial Conference of the Society for Caribbean Linguistics, Nassau, The Bahamas, 30 July – 3 August 2012

Source:  p. 58-9

The University of the West Indies, Cave Hill

The Portuguese, West African and Brazilian Origins of Papiamentu

The genesis of Papiamentu (PA) still is controversial and scholars explain it through different hypotheses. Amongst others, Maduro (1966) and Munteanu (1996) classify it as a Spanish creole, since the Spaniards were the first to colonise the ABC Islands, where PA is spoken today; Martinus (1996) and Jacobs (2009) defend the Afro-Portuguese roots of PA, which would be linked to the transatlantic slave trade, whereas Goodman (1987) claims that PA would trace back its origins to a Brazilian creole brought to the Caribbean by Sephardic Jews and their servants who immigrated from Dutch Brazil to Curaçao after the recapture of Pernambuco by the Portuguese.
Differently from previous studies, the aim of this paper is to show that both the Afro-Portuguese and the Brazilian
hypothesis are complementary and necessarily must be considered when investigating the origins of PA, namely the role of the Portuguese language in Africa and the Americas during the transatlantic slave trade, the historical links between the ABC Islands and West Africa, and between Curaçao and Brazil. After a century of unsystematic rule, the Spaniards abandoned the ABC Islands and declared them islas inútiles or useless islands. In 1634, the Dutch occupied Curaçao and expelled almost all Amerindians to Venezuela. Even if the handful remaining Caiquetíos would have spoken Spanish or a Spanish creole after the Spanish absence, this fact hardly could have been decisive in the formation of PA, given the high influx of people from West Africa and Dutch Brazil.
History alone obviously cannot be used as the only evidence to support the claim that PA can trace back its origins to Portuguese and the Portuguese Creoles spoken in Europe, West Africa and Brazil, but it certainly is a component that plays a vital role to understand its origins. In this context the historic links between West Africa, Brazil and the ABC Islands will be examined. Linguistic data is naturally the most reliable evidence.
The linguistic features that PA shares with Portuguese and creoles of Portuguese basis will be thoroughly analysed in a future paper. Shared linguistic features between Fá d’Ambô (Annobonese) and PA and Brazilian Vernacular Portuguese and PA will be the object of the study. Therefore, the historical component here investigated should only be considered the first pillar of a more extensive and complete study. Both components combined, however, certainly provide a broader and more comprehensive scenario as to why it may be possible to trace back the origins of Papiamentu to Portuguese and Creoles of Portuguese origin.
The evidence shows that the history of the formation of PA cannot be comprehensively analysed and understood if vital historical links to the Portuguese language, to West Africa and Portuguese Creoles spoken in Africa, and to the immigration of Sephardic Jews and their servants from Dutch Brazil to Curaçao are ignored. As result, this paper definitively refutes any hypothesis that excludes the fundamental role of Portuguese and Portuguese creoles in the formation of PA.