Papiamento y la conexión brasileña establecida mediante los judíos sefardíes

Papiamentu and the Brazilian Connection Established through the Sephardic Jews (Papiamento y la conexión brasileña establecida mediante los judíos sefardíes)

Marco A. Schaumloeffel

Article published in English in Revista Letras, Universidad Nacional Costa Rica

Schaumloeffel, M. (2020). Papiamento y la conexión brasileña establecida mediante los judíos sefardíes. LETRAS1(67), 75-89. https://doi.org/10.15359/rl.1-67.4

Links: Schaumloeffel – Papiamentu and the Brazilian Connection Established through the Sephardic Jews – Letras Feb2020

Abstract

This study examines the linguistic contact between Papiamentu and Brazilian Portuguese established when the Sephardic Jews were expelled from Dutch Brazil and some of them relocated in Curaçao. Three lexical items of PA (yaya, ‘nanny, nursemaid’; bacoba, ‘banana’; and fulabola ‘forefinger, index finger’) are analysed and put into their historical context to show that their presence in Papiamentu can be attributed to the contact between Brazil and Curaçao due to the forced migration of the Sephardic Jews and their servants.

Resumen

El estudio examina el contacto lingüístico entre el papiamento y el portugués brasileño, establecido cuando los judíos sefardíes fueron expulsados del Brasil Holandés y algunos se trasladaron a la isla Curazao. Tres unidades lexicales del papiamento (yaya, ‘niñera, niñera’; bacoba, ‘banana’; y fulabola, ‘dedo índice) se analizan y ponen en su contexto histórico para mostrar que su presencia en papiamento es atribuible al contacto entre Brasil y Curazao, con la forzada migración de los judíos sefardíes y sus criados.

Keywords: Papiamentu, Brazilian Portuguese, origins of Papiamentu, Sephardic Jew

Palabras clave: papiamento, portugués brasileño, orígenes del papiamento, judíos sefardíes

Citas

Buarque de Holanda Ferreira, Aurélio. Novo dicionário eletrônico da língua portuguesa. Rio de Janeiro: Nova Fronteira, 2009.

Câmara Cascudo, Luís da. Dicionário do folclore brasileiro. Rio de Janeiro: Ediouro, 2003. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/335622.

Duarte, Rojane. “A origem e o significado de iaiá.” Ciberdúvidas da língua portuguesa, 2007, 30 Nov 2017, <https://ciberduvidas.iscte-iul.pt/consultorio/perguntas/a-origem-e-o-significado-de-iaia/20689>.

Goodman, Morris. The Portuguese Element in the American Creoles. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1987.

Holm, John. An Introduction to Pidgins and Creoles. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139164153.

Houaiss, Antônio. Dicionário eletrônico Houaiss da língua portuguesa. 3.0. Rio de Janeiro: Objetiva, 2009. DOI: https://doi.org/10.11606/d.8.2009.tde-30112009-151358

Jacobs, Bart. “The Upper Guinea Origins of Papiamentu Linguistic and Historical Evidence.” Diachronica 26, 3 (2009). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1075/dia.26.3.02jac.

Jacobs, Bart. Origins of a Creole: The History of Papiamentu and its African Ties. Berlin: De Gruyter, 2012. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/9781614511076.

Johnen, Thomas. “Frederiks, Bernardus Th. J. (2009 [1859]): Woordenlijst der in der landstaal van Curaçao meest gebruikelijke woorden; alphabetisch neu geordnet mit dem heutigen Sprachstand verglichen und etymologisiert von Johannes Kramer, Hamburg: Buske (Kreolische Bibliothek; 22),” Lusorama 97-98 (2014): 254-265.

Johnen, Thomas. Bakoba pa makaku: Sobre a problemática dos africanismos na lexicografia do Papiamentu (2014), manuscript.

Karner, Frances P. The Sephardics of Curacao: A Study of Socio-Cultural Patterns in Flux. Assen: Van Gorcum, 1969.

Kouwenberg, Silvia. “Papiamentu Structure Dataset,” Atlas of Pidgin and Creole Language Structures Online. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, 29 Jan 2017, <http://apics-online.info/contributions/47>.

Kramer, Johannes. Kleines etymologisches Wörterbuch Papiamento-Deutsch Deutsch-Papiamento. Hamburg: Buske, 2013.

Martinus, Frank. The Kiss of a Slave: Papiamentu’s West-African Connections. Amsterdam: Universiteit van Amsterdam, 2004.

Pessoa de Castro, Yeda. Falares africanos na Bahia: Um vocabulário afro-brasileiro. Rio de Janeiro: Topbooks, 2001.

Ratzlaff, Betty. Papiamentu/Ingles dikshonario, English/Papiamentu Dictionary. Kralendijk: TWR Dictionary Foundation/Science Press, 1995.

Rossel, Gerda. Taxonomic-Linguistic Study of Plantain in Africa. Leiden: Research School CNWS, 1998.

Rupert, Linda M. Creolization and Contraband: Curaçao in the Early Modern Atlantic World. Athens, Georgia: University of Georgia Press, 2012. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/ tla.12005_4.

Salles, Vicente. Vocabulário crioulo: contribuição do negro ao falar regional amazônico. Belém: Instituto de Artes do Pará, 2003.

Van Putte, Florimon. “Dede Pikina, de Braziliaanse Connectie En de Yaya,” Kristòf XII, 4 (2003).

Mea deefe unsere Kultur net sterwe losse

Brasilianisches Hunsrückisch

Mea deefe unsere Kultur net sterwe losse

Marco Aurelio Schaumloeffel

Texto selecionado no I Concurso Literário de Poemas e Contos em Hunsrückisch e publicado no livro “Hunsrückisch em Prosa e Verso”, páginas 93-96.

Hunsrückisch em prosa & verso: textos do Concurso Literário de Poemas e Contos em Hunsrückisch 2017 . Organizadores, Cleo V. Altenhofen … [et al.]. Porto Alegre: Instituto de Letras – UFRGS, 2018.

ISBN on-line: 978-85-64522-38-1

 

Hier lese ich meinen Text in meiner Muttersprache brasilianisches Hunsrückisch vor (ohne mir großen Sorgen über die Audioqualität zu machen, nur um die Aussprache des Hunsrückischen vom Speckhof/Boa Vista do Herval, Landkreis Santa Maria do Herval, im Bundesland Rio Grande do Sul, Südbrasilien, zu registrieren). Eine dreisprachige Version des Textes finden Sie weiter unten.

Aqui o vídeo-áudio do meu texto (sem grande preocupação com qualidade de áudio profissional, apenas para registrar a pronúncia do Hunsrückisch da comunidade de Speckhof/Boa Vista do Herval, município de Santa Maria do Herval – RS).

Aqui está o texto trilíngue /  Der Dreisprachiger Text ist hier:

Mea deefe unsere Kultur net sterwe losse – Hunsrückisch, Hochdeutsch,  Português

 

O contato linguístico no Sul do Brasil – o caso do Hunsrückisch

O contato linguístico no Sul do Brasil – o caso do Hunsrückisch

Marco Aurelio Schaumloeffel

1) Palestra de encerramento “O contato linguístico no Sul do Brasil – o caso do Hunsrückisch” do VIII Encontro Internacional do Grupo de Estudos de Línguas em Contato – GELIC, realizado em Belém/PA, de 20 a 22 de novembro de 2019, na Universidade do Estado do Pará – UEPA.

Apresentação PowerPoint: solicite por e-mail.

2) Participação em mesa redonda: Constituição de corpora e a pesquisa sobre o contato linguístico em variedades de fala: questões teóricas e metodológicas, com Bruno Rocha (UFMG), Edenize Ponzo Peres (UFES), Marco Aurélio Schaumloeffel (UWI)

Website do evento: https://www.even3.com.br/viiigelic/ 

Syntactic Interferences of Portuguese in Brazilian Hunsrückisch

Syntactic Interferences of Portuguese in Brazilian Hunsrückisch

Marco Aurelio Schaumloeffel

Presentation at the 19th Annual Conference of the Association of Portuguese and Spanish-Lexified Creoles & the Summer Conference of the Society for Pidgin and Creole Linguistics
 
17-19 June 2019
 
Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal

PowerPoint of presentation: request by e-mail

 

Abstract

Syntactic Interferences of Portuguese in Brazilian Hunsrückisch

Marco Aurelio Schaumloeffel
Brazilian Studies, The University of the West Indies, Cave Hill Campus, Barbados

Brazilian Hunsrückisch (HR) is the most widely spoken variety of German in Brazil. German immigration to Brazil started in 1824 and lasted for over a century. Today, it is estimated that there are between 1.2 million Altenhofen 2017) and 3 million (Ethnologue 2018) native speakers of the Brazilian variety of Hunsrückisch. The almost 200-year-old contact situation
with Brazilian Portuguese (PT) created a favourable environment for linguistic interferences (cf. Weinreich 1953; Juhász 1980) in both languages. As result, it is common to find grammatical, lexical and semantic interferences of PT in the varieties of HR (cf. Sambaquy-
Wallner 1998; Altenhofen 1996; Damke 1997, among others). The focus of this paper is to verify the existence of syntactic interferences of PT in HR and to do an unprecedented analysis of these interferences in the HR variety spoken in the community of Boa Vista do Herval, also known as Speckhof in HR, located in the mountainous region of the Northeast of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil. Data collected from 36 speakers selected according to sociolinguistic criteria based on age, gender, level of schooling, religion and income were transcribed and analysed. The main syntactic interference found in the data examined in this paper is the calquing of the verb position from the PT syntactic structure, i.e., the change for some speakers in the position of the verb in HR from a typical HR behaviour, also in line with standard German, to a verb position typical for PT. Sentences presenting this change will be analysed, showing that there effectively are syntactic interferences of PT in the HR variety spoken in Speckhof.

 

Papiamentu and the Brazilian connection established through the Sephardic Jews

Papiamentu and the Brazilian connection established through the Sephardic Jews

Marco Aurelio Schaumloeffel
Presentation at the 22nd Biennial Conference of the The Society for Caribbean Linguistics (SCL)
Heredia/Limón, Costa Rica 5th-12th August 2018
Conference Programme
Conference website

Abstract

Papiamentu and the Brazilian connection established through the Sephardic Jews

A direct historical connection between Curaçao and Brazil was established due to the resettlement of Sephardic Jews, their assistants, and their free and enslaved African servants from Dutch Brazil to the Caribbean after the Dutch were expelled by the Portuguese from the Northeast of Brazil. Portuguese-speaking Jews from Brazil began to arrive in Curaçao in 1659. This period coincides with the period between 1634 and 1677, considered crucial for the formation of Papiamentu (Jacobs, The Upper Guinea origins of Papiamentu Linguistic and historical evidence 353). Portuguese was one of the languages spoken by the Sephardi in Curaçao. From the beginning, the Jewish congregation in Curaçao even used Portuguese for their religious services; they only changed to Spanish in the nineteenth century (Holm, An Introduction to Pidgins and Creoles 78). The historical facts involving the dislocation of people from Pernambuco, Brazil to Curaçao naturally lead to the assumption of a possible influence of these Portuguese-speaking Sephardic Jews and their Afro-Brazilian servants in the formation of Papiamentu (PA). Although the current body of research in PA completely discards the hypothesis of a Brazilian origin of Papiamentu, as postulated in 1987 by Goodman (The Portuguese element in the American Creoles), the intention of this presentation is to show that there are effective links between these two areas and that there probably was some secondary degree of influence from Brazilian Portuguese during the formation process of PA. Even if they existed, it certainly would be difficult to prove that some of the PA features present in the deeper layers of the language could be specifically attributed to an influence from Brazilian Portuguese or the Portuguese spoken by the Sephardi, as it probably would be difficult to clearly set them apart from the features incorporated into PA that are also present in other Portuguese variants and in West African Portuguese-based creoles. However, specific lexical items that will be discussed in this presentation show that their transfer to PA may have happened because of the dislocation of Sephardic Jews and their servants from Brazil to Curaçao. Traces of at least one of those lexical items can also be found in French Guiana and in Suriname, the final destination for some of those expelled from Brazil or the temporary destination as place of passage for others that later headed to Curaçao. Some lexical items, including PA yaya ‘nanny, nursemaid’, bacoba ‘banana’ and fulabola ‘forefinger, index finger’, will be analysed to show that their presence in PA can probably be specifically attributed to the historical connection created between Brazil and Curaçao due to the forced migration of the Sephardic Jews and their servants.

Questionamentos e Discussões Essenciais Acerca de um Possível Sistema de Escrita para o Hunsrückisch Brasileiro

Questionamentos e Discussões Essenciais Acerca de um Possível Sistema de Escrita para o Hunsrückisch Brasileiro

Marco Aurelio Schaumloeffel

 

Artigo publicado na revista Trama, v. 14, n. 31 (2018), p. 109-121, e-ISSN 1981-4674

 

Link para a publicação:

http://e-revista.unioeste.br/index.php/trama/article/view/17600/12408

Artigo em arquivo PDF para download

Errata:  a formatação do artigo provavelmente causou uma mistura/um corte nas palavras na seguinte passagem:

“Assim, há duas formas de escrita e algumas diferenças no Papiamentu, conforme o ilustrado através dos exemplos de palavras apresentadas abaixo:
Curaçao e Bonaire: étiko, kas, piská, Papiamentu, kombinashon, lèternan, ferfdó
Aruba: etico, cas, pisca, Papiamento, combinacion, letranan, pintor
Português: ético, casa, peixe, Papiamentu(o), combinação, cartas, pintor”

Original do artigo submetido pode ser lido aqui.

RESUMO: O objetivo deste trabalho é discutir basilarmente por que e se o Hunsrückisch brasileiro, a língua falada por grande parte dos descendentes de alemães no Brasil, deve ter um sistema de escrita estabelecido. Com base nestas questões, as vantagens e desvantagens de um eventual estabelecimento de um sistema de escrita serão analisados e ponderações feitas sobre o que este sistema, no contexto da complexidade e da presença de muitas variedades, imprescindivelmente deve conter e levar em conta. Serão trazidos exemplos de dois contextos completamente diferentes, nomeadamente da Suíça e das Ilhas ABC (Aruba, Bonaire e Curaçao, no Caribe), onde são falados, respectivamente, o Alemão suíço e o Papiamentu, com o propósito de verificar como estes casos podem apontar para possíveis caminhos e soluções para estas questões. Além disso, duas propostas já existentes de sistemas de escrita para o Hunsrückisch brasileiro serão analisadas e testadas quanto a sua funcionalidade e aplicabilidade.

 PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Hunsrückisch brasileiro, Alemão no Brasil, sistema de escrita, ortografia, variedades linguísticas

 

ABSTRACT: The objective of this article is to fundamentally discuss why and if Brazilian Hunsrückisch, the language spoken by the majority of the German descendants in Brazil, should have an established writing system. Based on these questions, the advantages and disadvantages of a prospective establishment of a writing system will be analysed and considerations will be made about what this system should necessarily contain and regard. Examples from two completely different contexts will be presented, namely from Switzerland and the ABC Islands (Aruba, Bonaire and Curaçao in the Caribbean) where Swiss German and Papiamentu are respectively spoken, in order to verify how those cases can point to possible ways and solutions to these questions. Apart from that, two already existing proposals of writing systems for Brazilian Hunsrückisch will be analysed and tested for their functionality and applicability.  

 KEYWORDS: Brazilian Hunsrückisch, German in Brazil, writing system, orthography, linguistic varieties

Tabom: O Brasil longe do Brasil – Tabom: Brazil away from Brazil

Entrevista concedida à revista Atlântico / Interview for Atlantico Magazine

Instituto Brasil África / Brazil Africa Institute

Tabom: O Brasil longe do Brasil – Tabom: Brazil away from Brazil. Atlantico. Year 3. Number 11. July 2017. Pages 46-50. ISSN 2447-8016. Fortaleza, Brazil.

 

Link para todas as revistas/Link to all magazines: https://ibraf.org/atlantico-magazine/

Link para esta edição / Link to this edition: https://ibraf.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/atlantico11.pdf

 

 

 

Decalques do Português no Hunsrückisch falado no Rio Grande do Sul

Decalques do Português no Hunsrückisch falado no Rio Grande do Sul

Marco Aurelio Schaumloeffel

Apresentação durante o VI Encontro do Grupo de Estudos de Línguas em Contato
7 a 9 de dezPictureembro de 2015, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador – BA

 

 

 

Resumos (Página 57)
Site do evento
PowerPoint da Apresentação: favor solicitar por e-mail
Além da apresentação, também ocorreu a participação no minicurso ‘Language contact/genesis and grammatical development” ministrado por Claire Lefebvre, Université du Québec à Montréal, Canadá.

Abstract

Decalques do Português no Hunsrückisch falado no Rio Grande do Sul

Marco Aurelio Schaumloeffel
Brazilian Studies, The University of the West Indies, Cave Hill Campus, Barbados

O objetivo deste estudo é fazer o levantamento e verificar como ocorre o processo de formação de decalques na variante alemã Hunsrückisch (HR) falada em uma comunidade bilíngue do interior do Rio Grande do Sul. O uso concomitante do Português (PT) e do HR gera um ambiente propício à interferência linguística (cf. Weinreich 1953 10; Juhász 1980) recíproca. Os decalques são o resultado sedimentado das interferências linguísticas que ocorrem em comunidades bilíngues (Schaumloeffel 2007 47) e consistem, especificamente neste estudo, na tradução de empréstimos, na ressemantização (Biderman 2006 36) de termos vindos do PT. Em vez de simplesmente serem adotadas as palavras ou as expressões do PT, como, p.ex., na apropriação lexical, é feita a substituição e elementos correspondentes da língua receptora passam a ser usados. Quando ocorre o decalque, não ocorrem apenas processos semânticos, mas também sintáticos e pragmáticos. O significado no HR permanece equivalente ao do PT; o resultado, porém, é a criação de uma estrutura gramatical ou de uma expressão ou termo antes inexistentes no HR. A análise dos decalques no HR foi feita a partir dos dados levantados em gravações com 36 moradores da localidade de Speckhof, no município de Santa Maria do Herval – RS. Os informantes foram selecionados de acordo com critérios sociolinguísticos como faixas de idade, sexo, grau de escolaridade, religião e fonte de renda com o objetivo de verificar se há graus diferentes de ocorrência de decalques entre os diversos estratos estabelecidos. O estudo verificou a existência de decalques da estrutura sintática, com o verbo em posição diferente da normalmente exigida (P2) no HR, e a ocorrência relativamente produtiva de decalques semânticos provenientes de expressões lexicalizadas do PT.

 

Brasilianisches Hunsrückisch schreiben? / Escrever o Hunsrückisch brasileiro?

Picture

Brasilianisches Hunsrückisch schreiben? / Escrever o Hunsrückisch brasileiro? Perguntas e discussões essenciais.
Marco Aurelio Schaumloeffel


Präsentation während des 9. Brasilianischen Deutschlehrerkongress – Deutsch (über)Brücken – 22.-24. Juli 2015
Universidade do Vale do Rio dos Sinos – São Leopoldo – RS – Brasilien


Programm + Abstracts ISSN 2446-9092 (Abstract auf Seite 30)
Website des Kongresses

PowerPoint der Präsentation: bitte per E-Mail anfragen/solicitar por e-mail

Audio-Datei/Arquivo de áudio com as 10 frases estudadas.

Abstract
Brasilianisches Hunsrückisch schreiben?
Marco Aurelio Schaumloeffel
Brazilian Studies, The University of the West Indies, Cave Hill Campus, Barbados

Ziel dieser Präsentation ist grundsätzlich zu diskutieren, warum und ob man das brasilianische Hunsrückisch (Riograndensisch, Katharinensisch und ihre Varianten) schreiben soll. Anhand dieser Frage, werden die Vor- und Nachteile einer eventuellen Festlegung einer Schreibweise analysiert und was diese unbedingt im Kontext der Komplexität und Vielfalt der Varianten beinhalten und berücksichtigen müsste. Beispiele aus zwei komplett unterschiedlichen Kontexten, nämlich aus der Schweiz und den ABC-Inseln (Aruba, Bonaire und Curaçao in der Karibik), wo Schweizerdeutsch bzw. Papiamentu gesprochen wird, zeigen auf mögliche Wege zu Lösungen auf diese Frage. Bereits existierende Vorschläge von Schreibweisen für das brasilianische Hunsrückisch werden unter den erstellten Kriterien auf ihre Anwendbarkeit und Funktionalität getestet und analysiert.

Afro-Brazilian Diaspora in West Africa: The Tabom in Ghana

Chapter in Book

Afro-Brazilian Diaspora in West Africa: The Tabom in Ghana
Marco AureliPictureo Schaumloeffel

Book – Another Black Like Me: The Construction of Identities and Solidarity in the African Diaspora. Edited by Elaine Pereira Rocha and Nielson Rosa Bezerra
ISBN-13: 978-1-4438-7178-5
01 Feb 2015
Pages: 185-199

 

Book Description
This book brings together authors from different institutions and perspectives and from researchers specialising in different aspects of the experiences of the African Diaspora from Latin America. It creates an overview of the complexities of the lives of Black people over various periods of history, as they struggled to build lives away from Africa in societies that, in general, denied them the basic right of fully belonging, such as the right of fully belonging in the countries where, by choice or force of circumstance, they lived. Another Black Like Me thus presents a few notable scenes from the long history of Blacks in Latin America: as runaway slaves seen through the official documentation denouncing as illegal those who resisted captivity; through the memoirs of a slave who still dreamt of his homeland; reflections on the status of Black women; demands for citizenship and kinship by Black immigrants; the fantasies of Blacks in the United States about the lives of Blacks in Brazil; a case study of some of those who returned to Africa and had to build a new identity based on their experiences as slaves; and the abstract representations of race and color in the Caribbean. All of these provide the reader with a glimpse of complex phenomena that, though they cannot be generalized in a single definition of blackness in Latin America, share the common element of living in societies where the definition of blackness was flexible, there were no laws of racial segregation, and where the culture on one hand tolerates miscegenation, and on the other denies full recognition of rights to Blacks.

Sample and contents
– Website: http://www.cambridgescholars.com/another-black-like-me