What do Aruba, Bonaire and Curaçao have in common with Malacca? The historical and linguistic links between Papiamentu and Papiá Kristang.

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What do Aruba, Bonaire and Curaçao have in common with Malacca? Historical and linguistic links between Papiamentu and Papiá Kristang.
Marco Aurelio Schaumloeffel

Handout
Handout SCL 2014 – Marco Schaumloeffel
Prezi Presentation

Abstract
Abstracts SCL 2014 (p. 56)

References
References used to prepare presentation

What do Aruba, Bonaire and Curaçao have in common with Malacca? Historical and linguistic links between Papiamentu and Papiá Kristang.

The discussion on the origin of Papiamentu (PA) still is controversial, since it is classified by some scholars as a Spanish Creole and by others as a Portuguese Creole. However, recent historical and linguistic evidence trace back its origins to West African Portuguese creoles (Jacobs 2012, among others). This leaves little space to speculate if PA owes its origins to a variety or varieties of Spanish, but there still are many scholars who claim that PA is supposedly of Spanish origin.
The aim of this paper is to provide further evidence in favour of the Portuguese origin of PA by doing a unique investigation on the historical and linguistic links existing between PA and Papiá Kristang (PK). Historical links set the context, but linguistic data is naturally the most reliable evidence of possible genetic ties between creoles. At the first instance, it seems strange to compare a Portuguese creole  developed in Southeast Asia with another creole spoken in former Dutch colonies in the Caribbean, since they apparently are worlds apart.
Nevertheless, PK can ideally be used in this context, since it is a well-known and studied Portuguese creole that has virtually no Spanish influence. And if there is virtually no Spanish influence in PK, then the comparison between PA and PK may be an ideal tool to establish if PA really carries Portuguese features. Only a careful analysis can reveal if grammatical similarities are present in the structural fabric of both creoles.
The linguistic features that PA shares with PK will be analysed and compared in this paper through four relevant aspects of grammatical categories: Formation and use of TMA markers (Tense, Mood, Aspect), the multifunctionality of the lexical item ‘ku’, word reduplication and its grammatical functions, and analysis of two auxiliary verbs.
The evidence indicates that the origins of PA cannot be comprehensively analysed and understood if vital historical and linguistic links to the Portuguese language are ignored. These ties were formed via West Africa and the Portuguese creoles spoken there, and possibly also influenced by the immigration of Sephardic Jews and their servants from Dutch Brazil to Curaçao. Despite not being genetically linked to West African Portuguese creoles, but because it is a Portuguese creole undoubtedly unrelated to Spanish, PK acts as an ideal tool of comparison in this case. As result, this paper definitively refutes any hypothesis that excludes the fundamental role of Portuguese and Portuguese creoles in the formation of PA.

Emilio Tezas Aufschlüsselung der Grammatik des Papiamentu

Chapter in Book – German

Emilio Tezas Aufschlüsselung der Grammatik des Papiamentu

SCHAUMLOEFFEL, Marco Aurelio. Emilio Tezas Aufschlüsselung der Grammatik des Papiamentu. In: Philipp Krämer (Org.). Ausgewählte Arbeiten der Kreolistik des 19. Jahrhunderts / Selected Works from 19th Century Creolistics. 1ed.Hamburg: Buske, 2014, Kreolische Biblithek Band v. 24, p. 31-38.

Leseprobe: hPicturettps://buske.de/reading/web/?isbn=9783875486780

Webseite des Verlags:
http://www.buske.de/product_info.php?products_id=3881

Philipp Krämer (Hg.)
Ausgewählte Arbeiten der Kreolistik des 19. Jahrhunderts / Selected Works from 19th Century Creolistics
Emilio Teza, Thomas Russell, Erik Pontoppidan, Adolpho Coelho
Kreolische Bibliothek, Band 24. 2014. 184 Seiten. 978-3-87548-678-0.

Die Disziplingeschichte der Kreolistik ist noch lange nicht vollständig aufgearbeitet. Gerade im 19. Jahrhundert entfaltete sich ein neues Interesse für Kreolsprachen.
Dieser Band zeigt die ganze Vielfalt der Vorläufer des Faches: Vier bisher weniger beachtete Texte aus verschiedenen Ländern von ganz unterschiedlichen Autoren mit ihren eigenen Schwerpunkten können im Original und in deutscher Übersetzung neu entdeckt werden. Neben den Editionen beleuchten zu jeder historischen Arbeit jeweils zwei Kommentare von ausgewiesenen Fachleuten die Facetten der Quellen. Vom epistemologischen Erbe der Disziplin zur biographischen Vorstellung der Autoren, von der historischen Grammatik zur philologischen Bedeutung der Oralliteratur reichen die Fragestellungen, welche die heutige Kreolistik anhand älterer Texte angehen kann.

INHALT 

Vorwort …………………………………………………………………………………………… VII

Einleitung: Vier Kreolisten – und was ihre Arbeiten für die Gegenwart
bedeuten (Philipp Krämer) …………………………………………………………………. IX

Il dialetto curassese (Emilio Teza) ……………………………………………………….. 1

Der Dialekt von Curaçao (Emilio Teza) ……………………………………………….. 11

Emilio Teza: A Curious Genius and Nomad of Philology
(Roberta Pasqua Mocerino / Markus Lenz) ………………………………………….. 23

Emilio Tezas Aufschlüsselung der Grammatik des Papiamentu
(Marco Aurelio Schaumloeffel) …………………………………………………………… 31

The Etymology of Jamaica Grammar (Thomas Russell) …………………………. 39

Thomas Russell’s Grammar of “A Stubborn and Expressive Corruption”
(Don E. Walicek) ………………………………………………………………………………. 55

Thomas Russell’s Contribution to Historical Jamaican Grammar
(Joseph T. Farquharson) ……………………………………………………………………. 67

Einige Notizen über die Kreolensprache der dänisch-westindischen Inseln
(Erik Pontoppidan) ……………………………………………………………………………. 79

Det dansk-vestindistke kreolsprog (Erik Pontoppidan) ………………………….. 89

Die dänisch-westindische Kreolsprache (Erik Pontoppidan) …………………… 99

Dr. med. Erik Pontoppidan und das Negerhollands (Peter Stein) …………….. 109

Die kreolische Oralliteratur: eine Kultur des Widerstandes?
(Magdalena von Sicard) ……………………………………………………………………… 123

Os dialectos romanicos ou neo-latinos na África, Ásia e América
(Adolpho Coelho) ………………………………………………………………………………. 143

Die romanischen oder neulateinischen Dialekte in Afrika, Asien und
Amerika (Adolpho Coelho) ………………………………………………………………… 149

Die letzten Geheimnisse Adolfo Coelhos? (Sílvio Moreira de Sousa) ………. 157

Neither raça nor povo. Adolpho Coelho’s Particular Universalism
(Philipp Krämer) ………………………………………………………………………………. 175


Source: Marco

What do Aruba, Bonaire and Curaçao have in common with Malacca? The historical and linguistic links between Papiamentu and Papiá Kristang

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Presentation – References

What do Aruba, Bonaire and Curaçao have in common with Malacca?
The historical and linguistic links between Papiamentu and Papiá Kristang

 

The Portuguese, West African and Brazilian Origins of Papiamentu

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Abstract of presentation done at the 19th Biennial Conference of the Society for Caribbean Linguistics, Nassau, The Bahamas, 30 July – 3 August 2012

Source: http://www.scl-online.net/Conferences/Past/2012_abstracts.pdf  p. 58-9

SCHAUMLOEFFEL, Marco
The University of the West Indies, Cave Hill

The Portuguese, West African and Brazilian Origins of Papiamentu

The genesis of Papiamentu (PA) still is controversial and scholars explain it through different hypotheses. Amongst others, Maduro (1966) and Munteanu (1996) classify it as a Spanish creole, since the Spaniards were the first to colonise the ABC Islands, where PA is spoken today; Martinus (1996) and Jacobs (2009) defend the Afro-Portuguese roots of PA, which would be linked to the transatlantic slave trade, whereas Goodman (1987) claims that PA would trace back its origins to a Brazilian creole brought to the Caribbean by Sephardic Jews and their servants who immigrated from Dutch Brazil to Curaçao after the recapture of Pernambuco by the Portuguese.
Differently from previous studies, the aim of this paper is to show that both the Afro-Portuguese and the Brazilian
hypothesis are complementary and necessarily must be considered when investigating the origins of PA, namely the role of the Portuguese language in Africa and the Americas during the transatlantic slave trade, the historical links between the ABC Islands and West Africa, and between Curaçao and Brazil. After a century of unsystematic rule, the Spaniards abandoned the ABC Islands and declared them islas inútiles or useless islands. In 1634, the Dutch occupied Curaçao and expelled almost all Amerindians to Venezuela. Even if the handful remaining Caiquetíos would have spoken Spanish or a Spanish creole after the Spanish absence, this fact hardly could have been decisive in the formation of PA, given the high influx of people from West Africa and Dutch Brazil.
History alone obviously cannot be used as the only evidence to support the claim that PA can trace back its origins to Portuguese and the Portuguese Creoles spoken in Europe, West Africa and Brazil, but it certainly is a component that plays a vital role to understand its origins. In this context the historic links between West Africa, Brazil and the ABC Islands will be examined. Linguistic data is naturally the most reliable evidence.
The linguistic features that PA shares with Portuguese and creoles of Portuguese basis will be thoroughly analysed in a future paper. Shared linguistic features between Fá d’Ambô (Annobonese) and PA and Brazilian Vernacular Portuguese and PA will be the object of the study. Therefore, the historical component here investigated should only be considered the first pillar of a more extensive and complete study. Both components combined, however, certainly provide a broader and more comprehensive scenario as to why it may be possible to trace back the origins of Papiamentu to Portuguese and Creoles of Portuguese origin.
The evidence shows that the history of the formation of PA cannot be comprehensively analysed and understood if vital historical links to the Portuguese language, to West Africa and Portuguese Creoles spoken in Africa, and to the immigration of Sephardic Jews and their servants from Dutch Brazil to Curaçao are ignored. As result, this paper definitively refutes any hypothesis that excludes the fundamental role of Portuguese and Portuguese creoles in the formation of PA.

The influence of the Portuguese Language in Ghana

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 A Brazilian in Ghana – I
SCHAUMLOEFFEL, Marco Aurelio. The African influence on Brazilian Music.. Daily Graphic, Accra, v. 149132, p. 14 – 14, 21 maio 2004.

The influence of the Portuguese Language in Ghana

Last year, when I arrived in Accra, I was surprised to hear some strange expressions in the English language, even though I’m a Brazilian and English is not my mother tongue. At the traffic lights I could hear people saying e.g. “dash me”. In the dictionary the meaning for the verb “dash” is “to shatter or smash”, which confused me. Searching for a solution, I arrived finally, to my surprise, at a logical explanation: it comes from the corrupted Portuguese “dás-me” (give me). The Portuguese were the first Europeans to arrive at the Gold Coast and build the Elmina Castle in 1482; they started an intensive and horrible slave trade. After that, Africa and Brazil built cultural and origin links, so that Brazil has nowadays, after Nigeria, the second biggest black population in the world. One of this links is the Tabom People, who came back to Accra in 1836, after they bought their own freedom in the Brazilian State of Bahia. Nowadays they have a Brazil House in James Town and roots to the Brazilian culture and language. Their own name Tabom comes from the Portuguese expression “Está bom” (“it’s ok” or “I’m fine”), because on their arrival, they could speak only Portuguese, so they greeted each other with “Como está?” (“How are you?”) to which the reply was “Está bom”, so that the people of Accra started to call them the Tabom People. All these facts can explain, why it is possible to find some influences of the Portuguese language in the everyday life of the Ghanaians. Another very common expression is “palaver” (gossip, to chat), that comes from “palavra” (word). “Panyar” or “panyarring” are terms from the Portuguese “apanhar” (to be beaten or to catch). In the standard English the word “fetish” comes from “feitiço”. “Sabola” is usual in Ewe and comes from the word “cebola” (onion); in Fanti people use the word “paano” for bread, what probably comes from our “pão”.

Family names of the Tabom People like Azumah, Nelson, Antônio or Faustino also show the Brazilian influence. Geographical names of Portuguese origin are very common in Ghana: Elmina (“A mina” – the mine), River Volta (“Rio Volta” – “River U-Turn”), Cape Three Points (“Cabo Três Pontas”), Cape Coast (“Cabo Corso” – in a free translation means “Cape of the Pirate”).

These few examples show us only a part of the influence of the Portuguese language in Ghana, however it is a sign that the own language changes and always displays the cultural, economic, political or social contacts that our people formerly made or is nowadays making. The Brazilian Portuguese also has a lot of influences of African languages, but this could be a theme for another article.

Marco Aurelio Schaumloeffel
Brazilian Lecturer in Ghana

P.S.: Portuguese is together with English and French one of the official languages of the ECOWAS.


Source: Marco