Translating the Presence of Portuguese in a Caribbean Creole. Why are there similarities between an Asian Portuguese Creole and Papiamentu?
Marco A. Schaumloeffel
Presentation at the Translating Creolization Symposium – May 27-29, 2015. The University of the West Indies, Cave Hill Campus, Barbados
Website of the event: www.cavehill.uwi.edu/fhe/lll/tcs
Papiamentu (PA) is a creole spoken as main language by the majority of the population in Aruba, Bonaire and Curaçao, and is official language in the first and in the latter. The origin of PA is controversial; a group of scholars attributes it to Spanish, due to its current lexical and phonetic similarities with Spanish, whereas another group sees linguistic genetic ties with Portuguese.
The aim of this presentation is to investigate the historical and linguistic links that might connect PA to Portuguese. Whereas historical links set the stage for eventual ties, possible grammatical commonalities in the very fabric that makes up the structure of PA may be strong indications of a genetic connection to its ancestor. Recent historical and linguistic evidence suggests that PA owes its origins to the West African Portuguese creoles. To further strengthen this evidence, this presentation will analyse key grammar elements such as function words, relators, verbal system and Time-Modality-Aspect markers, which are core elements and very strong indications of genetic ties, given their very low borrowability in contexts of relexification and formation of creoles. The analysis is done by means of comparing these PA core elements with those found in Papiá Kristang (PK), an Asian Portuguese Creole spoken mainly by only a few hundred persons in Malacca, Malaysia. It is consensus that PK is undoubtedly linguistically unrelated to Spanish. If there are similarities between PA and PK, then these can therefore not be attributed to Spanish. Although PK is used as tool of comparison, parallels with Spanish, Portuguese and other Spanish and Portuguese-based creoles will be made to establish a more comprehensive picture of possible linguistic ties between PA and Portuguese.
The evidence suggests that PA cannot be comprehensively analysed and understood if vital historical and linguistic links of this Caribbean creole to the Portuguese language are ignored.
Tabom. A Comunidade Afro-Brasileira do Gana
Marco Aurelio Schaumloeffel
Lançado em 2014 pela Geração Editorial – ISBN 9781847990136
Saiba mais aqui: http://is.gd/Ip9dSQ
Compre aqui: http://is.gd/UYw2h6 ou
Tabom. A Comunidade Afro-Brasileira do Gana
O primeiro livro sobre a história dos tabons, a comunidade afro-brasileira do Gana. Eles voltaram à África Ocidental entre 1829 e 1836. “Este livro parece pequeno, mas possui muitas portas, como se fosse um casarão. Elas se abrem para várias e diferentes paisagens e nos deixam ver, primeiro, de fraque e cartola e, depois, envoltas em belo pano kente, as figuras humanas que as povoaram e cujas histórias os atuais tabons repetem de cor. Se, em suas páginas, aprendemos muito sobre o grupo tabom, graças ao cuidado e à inteligência com que Marco Aurelio Schaumloeffel soube ouvir e ler, elas nos pedem que saibamos mais.” (Alberto da Costa e Silva).
ISBN 1448645158 EAN 9781448645152
O livro impresso pode ser encontrado aqui: Tabom. A Comunidade Afro-Brasileira do Gana
A diáspora africana e a construção do Brasil
Participação na mesa-redonda “A diáspora africana e a construção do Brasil”, com os professores Joel Rufino dos Santos (RJ) e Rafael Sanzio (DF). A mesa-redonda fez parte do Seminário “Narrativas Contemporâneas da História do Brasil”, da II Bienal Brasil do Livro e da Leitura. O evento ocorreu de 11 a 21 de abril de 2014, em Brasília, Brasil. Eu falei sobre a fascinante história dos Tabons e como eles formam uma diáspora afro-brasileira no Gana.
Website do evento: www.bienalbrasildolivro.com.br
Programação do dia 15.04.2014: programação
Ariano Suassuna foi o grande homenageado da Bienal. A homenagem foi linda e merecida. Este foi provavelmente o último evento literário do qual participou, infelizmente faleceu poucas semanas depois.
1) Guia UOL
2) Acha Brasília
Abstract of presentation done at the 19th Biennial Conference of the Society for Caribbean Linguistics, Nassau, The Bahamas, 30 July – 3 August 2012
Source: http://www.scl-online.net/Conferences/Past/2012_abstracts.pdf p. 58-9
The University of the West Indies, Cave Hill
The Portuguese, West African and Brazilian Origins of Papiamentu
The genesis of Papiamentu (PA) still is controversial and scholars explain it through different hypotheses. Amongst others, Maduro (1966) and Munteanu (1996) classify it as a Spanish creole, since the Spaniards were the first to colonise the ABC Islands, where PA is spoken today; Martinus (1996) and Jacobs (2009) defend the Afro-Portuguese roots of PA, which would be linked to the transatlantic slave trade, whereas Goodman (1987) claims that PA would trace back its origins to a Brazilian creole brought to the Caribbean by Sephardic Jews and their servants who immigrated from Dutch Brazil to Curaçao after the recapture of Pernambuco by the Portuguese.
Differently from previous studies, the aim of this paper is to show that both the Afro-Portuguese and the Brazilian
hypothesis are complementary and necessarily must be considered when investigating the origins of PA, namely the role of the Portuguese language in Africa and the Americas during the transatlantic slave trade, the historical links between the ABC Islands and West Africa, and between Curaçao and Brazil. After a century of unsystematic rule, the Spaniards abandoned the ABC Islands and declared them islas inútiles or useless islands. In 1634, the Dutch occupied Curaçao and expelled almost all Amerindians to Venezuela. Even if the handful remaining Caiquetíos would have spoken Spanish or a Spanish creole after the Spanish absence, this fact hardly could have been decisive in the formation of PA, given the high influx of people from West Africa and Dutch Brazil.
History alone obviously cannot be used as the only evidence to support the claim that PA can trace back its origins to Portuguese and the Portuguese Creoles spoken in Europe, West Africa and Brazil, but it certainly is a component that plays a vital role to understand its origins. In this context the historic links between West Africa, Brazil and the ABC Islands will be examined. Linguistic data is naturally the most reliable evidence.
The linguistic features that PA shares with Portuguese and creoles of Portuguese basis will be thoroughly analysed in a future paper. Shared linguistic features between Fá d’Ambô (Annobonese) and PA and Brazilian Vernacular Portuguese and PA will be the object of the study. Therefore, the historical component here investigated should only be considered the first pillar of a more extensive and complete study. Both components combined, however, certainly provide a broader and more comprehensive scenario as to why it may be possible to trace back the origins of Papiamentu to Portuguese and Creoles of Portuguese origin.
The evidence shows that the history of the formation of PA cannot be comprehensively analysed and understood if vital historical links to the Portuguese language, to West Africa and Portuguese Creoles spoken in Africa, and to the immigration of Sephardic Jews and their servants from Dutch Brazil to Curaçao are ignored. As result, this paper definitively refutes any hypothesis that excludes the fundamental role of Portuguese and Portuguese creoles in the formation of PA.
Printed Article – Portuguese
Português – artigo separado
Empréstimos Lingüísticos do Português nas Línguas Faladas no País dos Tabons
Este artigo de 29 páginas investiga os empréstimos de palavras e expressões do português em algumas das diversas línguas faladas no Gana. Este fenômeno foi causado pela presença portuguesa naquela área, iniciada em 1471, e pelo fenômeno dos retornados vindos da Bahia, lá chamados de “Tabom people”, ocorrida no início do Século XIX. Disponível nos formatos impresso e arquivo eletrônico. 29.09.2011