Considerations on the reciprocity and reflexivity in Papiamentu


Considerations on the reciprocity and reflexivity in Papiamentu

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Marco Aurelio Schaumloeffel
Presentation at the 21st Biennial Conference of the The Society for Caribbean Linguistics (SCL)
Kingston, Jamaica 1st-6th August 2016
Conference Programme
Conference website
References

Abstract

Considerations on the reciprocity and reflexivity in Papiamentu

The Ibero-Romance clitic pronouns were not incorporated into Papiamentu (PA). Instead, PA has today several different possibilities to form reflexives, which replaced the Ibero-Romance clitics:  paña ‘cloth’, kurpa ‘body’, null reflexive, possessive + kurpa, object pronoun, object pronoun + mes < Portuguese mesmo ‘self’, and possessive pronoun + mes (cf. Muysken 1993:286). At least two other strategies of reflexivisation or quasi-reflexivisation are not discussed by Muysken: the use of kabes ‘head’ and of the reciprocal otro ‘other’. While some of those types of reflexives are a common strategy of reflexivisation in several creole languages (Muysken and Smith 1994:271-288), some of them can also be found in other Portuguese-based creoles. Therefore, this might indicate that there is a linguistic link between PA and those creoles when it comes to the realisation of this category of function words.

The aim of this presentation is to ponder on how specifically the reflexives with kurpa, possessive + kurpa, kabes, otro and mes are realised in PA and compare them to their equivalents in other Portuguese and Spanish-based creoles in order to establish if there are linguistic ties that connect PA to them when it comes to reflexivity.

Reflexives with kurpa and possessive + kurpa are also found in the Guinea Bissau and Casamance Portuguese creoles (GBC), which in turn are usually correlated with a Kwa / Bantu substrate (Jacobs 2012:130-131), but are also present in Asian creoles like Papiá Kristang (PK) and Zamboangueño (Holm 2000:225). Reflexives or quasi-reflexives can also be formed with PA kabes, which also encounters equivalents in GBC, Cape Verdean Portuguese-based creoles and PK. Another shared feature of PA with GBC and PK is the use of ‘other’ to express reciprocity, whereas a similar syntax for PA mes can also be found in the Cape Verdean creole of São Vicente, in Principense and in PK.

 

Interestingly, the analysis of the available data always points towards the same direction, since the current realisation of reflexivity in PA seems to be etymologically, and sometimes even through its grammatical functions, linked to other Portuguese-based creoles and to Portuguese, rather than to Spanish or Spanish-based creoles. Holm raised two possibilities for the presence of a reflexive with ‘body’ in Asian creoles, which also can be extended to the other reflexives mentioned above: that they either spread by diffusion or arose independently through the influence of other substrate languages (2000:225). Based on their similar realisation, especially in PK, the former rather seems to be the case.

Why do Papiamento and a Creole Language Spoken in Malaysia have so many similarities?

Why do Papiamento and a Creole Language Spoken in Malaysia have so many similarities?

Two presentations at the Biblioteca Nacional Aruba, Oranjestad, Aruba

Lecture in the series “Lifelong Learninig – Academic Lectures” – May, 17 2016

Diario, 09 May 2016, p. 44

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Invitation

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Diario, 2 June 2016, p. 23

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Some pictures of the two events:

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2016-05-20 01.43.42 2016-05-22 14.32.46
2016-05-22 14.35.54 2016-05-22 14.33.46
2016-05-22 14.33.09

Abstract

Why do Papiamento and a Creole Language Spoken in Malaysia have so many similarities?

The aim of this presentation is to make relevant considerations on the origin of Papiamento (PA). The discussion on the origins of PA still is object of controversy. Some scholars classify it as a creole language of Spanish origins and others as a creole of Portuguese origins. Recent historical and linguistic evidence suggests that PA owes its origins to the West African Portuguese creoles (cf. Jacobs, Origins of a Creole 2012).

In this presentation, the author provides further evidence in favour of the Portuguese origins of PA by doing an investigation on the historical and linguistic links existing between PA and Papiá Kristang (PK). Historical links are important, but linguistic data is the most reliable evidence of possible genetic ties between creoles. It may seem strange to compare a creole language that developed in Southeast Asia with a creole spoken in former Dutch colonies in the Caribbean, since they are worlds apart. PK, a Portuguese creole spoken in Malacca, Malaysia, is not directly linked to the West African Portuguese creoles like PA, but is a Portuguese creole undoubtedly unrelated to Spanish. This fact turns PK into an interesting tool of comparison to verify possible similarities and correspondences in the PA and the PK grammatical categories, and to establish if PA carries basic Portuguese creole features. The analysis is based on linguistic data from grammars, descriptions and texts in PA and in PK. The focus are grammatical similarities and correspondences that are observed in the structure of both creoles, and the implications these have to determine a possible common origin.

To achieve this objective, a comparison of important linguistic features in the two languages will be made. The evidence suggests that the origins of PA cannot be completely analysed and understood if vital historical and linguistic links to the Portuguese language are ignored. It remains open to discussion whether these ties were solely formed via West Africa and the Portuguese creoles spoken there or not. However, this presentation intends to discard any hypothesis that excludes the fundamental role Portuguese and Portuguese creoles played in the formation of PA.

 

A formação do Papiamento, suas origens portuguesas, africano-ocidentais e brasileiras

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Artigo publicado

A formação do papeamento, suas origens portuguesas, africano-ocidentais e brasileiras
Marco Aurelio Schaumloeffel

(Syn)thesis,v. 7, n. 2 (2014), ISSN 1414-915X
DOI  10.12957/synthesis.2014.19663
UERJ, Rio de Janeiro

Artigo em pdf

Obs.: a publicação (Syn)thesis alterou o título original, revisou o texto e preferiu usar o termo “papeamento” sem consulta após submissão do artigo. Embora alguns dicionários aceitem o termo “papeamento”, prefiro usar os termos mais correntes: “papiamento” na escrita de Aruba ou “papiamentu” na escrita adotada em Curaçao e Bonaire. Artigo publicado em dezembro de 2015.

Abstract
O objetivo deste artigo é investigar as conexões históricas que contribuíram para a formação do Papiamentu, uma língua crioula falada nas ilhas caribenhas de Aruba, Bonaire e Curaçao (ABC). Através desta análise, pretende-se mostrar que as ligações históricas do Papiamentu indicam que sua origem não se deve ao Espanhol, como muitas vezes é erradamente propagado, mas sim ao Português e aos crioulos portugueses. Estas ligações foram estabelecidas através do tráfico de escravos, o qual usava variantes e crioulos do Português como língua franca de comércio, e através das conexões diretas e indiretas estabelecidas entre as ilhas ABC, a Europa, a África Ocidental e o Brasil.
Palavras-chave: Papiamentu, História, Formação, Línguas Crioulas

Abstract
The objective of this article is to investigate the historic links that contributed to the formation of Papiamentu, a creole language spoken in the Caribbean islands of Aruba, Bonaire and Curaçao (ABC). The intention is to show through this analysis that the historic links of Papiamentu do not point towards a Spanish origin, as many times erroneously disseminated, but to Portuguese and Portuguese creoles. These links were established through the slave trade, which used Portuguese varieties and creoles as their trade lingua franca, and through the direct and indirect connections established between the ABC Islands, Europe, West Africa and Brazil.
Key words: Papiamentu, History, Formation, Creole Languages
Title in English: Formation of Papiamentu, its Portuguese, West African and Brazilian Origins


Source: Marco

A Comparison of Relators in Papiamentu and Papiá Kristang

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A Comparison of Relators in Papiamentu and Papiá Kristang
Marco Aurelio Schaumloeffel

Presentation at the SPCL + ACBLPE 2015 Conference
Graz, Austria 7th-9th July 2015
Conference Program
Conference Booklet with Abstracts
Conference website
References

Abstract

A Comparison of Relators in Papiamentu and Papiá Kristang

Papiá Kristang is a Portuguese-based creole mainly spoken in Malacca, Malaysia, whereas Papiamentu is a creole mainly spoken in the Caribbean islands of Aruba, Bonaire and Curaçao (ABC Islands). The origin of Papiamentu still is controversial, since some scholars claim that it has genetic linguistic ties with Spanish, while others have sound evidence of its Portuguese origin, especially due to its links with West African Portuguese-based creoles (cf. Jacobs, Origins of a Creole, 2012, amongst others). The comparative study of the features of Papiamentu with Papiá Kristang still is a widely unexplored field. It is uncontroversial that Papiá Kristang is an Asian Portuguese-based creole with virtually no influences from Spanish or Spanish creoles. Therefore, if there are any similarities between Papiamentu and Papiá Kristang, those can certainly not be attributed to a Spanish common base in both creoles, but rather to another common base that they share, i.e., the Portuguese language. The main aim of this presentation is to compare and analyse relators in Papiamentu and Papiá Kristang. Relators are function words and as such pertain to the closed class words, which are much less likely to be replaced in borrowability or relexification situations if compared to content words, classified as open class words. The identification of the origin of relators can serve as indication towards linguistic genetic ties that might exist between creoles and the languages that were the base for their formation. The analysed relators will also be contrasted with the same features found in some other Portuguese and Spanish-based creoles in order to establish grammatical similarities and differences, and in doing so to investigate the origins of Papiamentu and the presence of Portuguese and Portuguese creole features in this creole language that today is recognized by the Dutch government in Bonaire and has official status as native language in Aruba and Curaçao.


Source: Marco

Translating the Presence of Portuguese in a Caribbean Creole

Translating the Presence of Portuguese in a Caribbean Creole. Why are there similarities between an Asian Portuguese Creole and Papiamentu?

Marco APicture. Schaumloeffel

Presentation at the Translating Creolization Symposium – May 27-29, 2015. The University of the West Indies, Cave Hill Campus, Barbados

Website of the event: www.cavehill.uwi.edu/fhe/lll/tcs

 

Abstract
Papiamentu (PA) is a creole spoken as main language by the majority of the population in Aruba, Bonaire and Curaçao, and is official language in the first and in the latter. The origin of PA is controversial; a group of scholars attributes it to Spanish, due to its current lexical and phonetic similarities with Spanish, whereas another group sees linguistic genetic ties with Portuguese.

The aim of this presentation is to investigate the historical and linguistic links that might connect PA to Portuguese. Whereas historical links set the stage for eventual ties, possible grammatical commonalities in the very fabric that makes up the structure of PA may be strong indications of a genetic connection to its ancestor. Recent historical and linguistic evidence suggests that PA owes its origins to the West African Portuguese creoles. To further strengthen this evidence, this presentation will analyse key grammar elements such as function words, relators, verbal system and Time-Modality-Aspect markers, which are core elements and very strong indications of genetic ties, given their very low borrowability in contexts of relexification and formation of creoles. The analysis is done by means of comparing these PA core elements with those found in Papiá Kristang (PK), an Asian Portuguese Creole spoken mainly by only a few hundred persons in Malacca, Malaysia. It is consensus that PK is undoubtedly linguistically unrelated to Spanish. If there are similarities between PA and PK, then these can therefore not be attributed to Spanish. Although PK is used as tool of comparison, parallels with Spanish, Portuguese and other Spanish and Portuguese-based creoles will be made to establish a more comprehensive picture of possible linguistic ties between PA and Portuguese.

The evidence suggests that PA cannot be comprehensively analysed and understood if vital historical and linguistic links of this Caribbean creole to the Portuguese language are ignored.

What do Aruba, Bonaire and Curaçao have in common with Malacca? The historical and linguistic links between Papiamentu and Papiá Kristang.

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What do Aruba, Bonaire and Curaçao have in common with Malacca? Historical and linguistic links between Papiamentu and Papiá Kristang.
Marco Aurelio Schaumloeffel

Handout
Handout SCL 2014 – Marco Schaumloeffel
Prezi Presentation

Abstract
Abstracts SCL 2014 (p. 56)

References
References used to prepare presentation

What do Aruba, Bonaire and Curaçao have in common with Malacca? Historical and linguistic links between Papiamentu and Papiá Kristang.

The discussion on the origin of Papiamentu (PA) still is controversial, since it is classified by some scholars as a Spanish Creole and by others as a Portuguese Creole. However, recent historical and linguistic evidence trace back its origins to West African Portuguese creoles (Jacobs 2012, among others). This leaves little space to speculate if PA owes its origins to a variety or varieties of Spanish, but there still are many scholars who claim that PA is supposedly of Spanish origin.
The aim of this paper is to provide further evidence in favour of the Portuguese origin of PA by doing a unique investigation on the historical and linguistic links existing between PA and Papiá Kristang (PK). Historical links set the context, but linguistic data is naturally the most reliable evidence of possible genetic ties between creoles. At the first instance, it seems strange to compare a Portuguese creole  developed in Southeast Asia with another creole spoken in former Dutch colonies in the Caribbean, since they apparently are worlds apart.
Nevertheless, PK can ideally be used in this context, since it is a well-known and studied Portuguese creole that has virtually no Spanish influence. And if there is virtually no Spanish influence in PK, then the comparison between PA and PK may be an ideal tool to establish if PA really carries Portuguese features. Only a careful analysis can reveal if grammatical similarities are present in the structural fabric of both creoles.
The linguistic features that PA shares with PK will be analysed and compared in this paper through four relevant aspects of grammatical categories: Formation and use of TMA markers (Tense, Mood, Aspect), the multifunctionality of the lexical item ‘ku’, word reduplication and its grammatical functions, and analysis of two auxiliary verbs.
The evidence indicates that the origins of PA cannot be comprehensively analysed and understood if vital historical and linguistic links to the Portuguese language are ignored. These ties were formed via West Africa and the Portuguese creoles spoken there, and possibly also influenced by the immigration of Sephardic Jews and their servants from Dutch Brazil to Curaçao. Despite not being genetically linked to West African Portuguese creoles, but because it is a Portuguese creole undoubtedly unrelated to Spanish, PK acts as an ideal tool of comparison in this case. As result, this paper definitively refutes any hypothesis that excludes the fundamental role of Portuguese and Portuguese creoles in the formation of PA.

Emilio Tezas Aufschlüsselung der Grammatik des Papiamentu

Chapter in Book – German

Emilio Tezas Aufschlüsselung der Grammatik des Papiamentu

SCHAUMLOEFFEL, Marco Aurelio. Emilio Tezas Aufschlüsselung der Grammatik des Papiamentu. In: Philipp Krämer (Org.). Ausgewählte Arbeiten der Kreolistik des 19. Jahrhunderts / Selected Works from 19th Century Creolistics. 1ed.Hamburg: Buske, 2014, Kreolische Biblithek Band v. 24, p. 31-38.

Leseprobe: hPicturettps://buske.de/reading/web/?isbn=9783875486780

Webseite des Verlags:
http://www.buske.de/product_info.php?products_id=3881

Philipp Krämer (Hg.)
Ausgewählte Arbeiten der Kreolistik des 19. Jahrhunderts / Selected Works from 19th Century Creolistics
Emilio Teza, Thomas Russell, Erik Pontoppidan, Adolpho Coelho
Kreolische Bibliothek, Band 24. 2014. 184 Seiten. 978-3-87548-678-0.

Die Disziplingeschichte der Kreolistik ist noch lange nicht vollständig aufgearbeitet. Gerade im 19. Jahrhundert entfaltete sich ein neues Interesse für Kreolsprachen.
Dieser Band zeigt die ganze Vielfalt der Vorläufer des Faches: Vier bisher weniger beachtete Texte aus verschiedenen Ländern von ganz unterschiedlichen Autoren mit ihren eigenen Schwerpunkten können im Original und in deutscher Übersetzung neu entdeckt werden. Neben den Editionen beleuchten zu jeder historischen Arbeit jeweils zwei Kommentare von ausgewiesenen Fachleuten die Facetten der Quellen. Vom epistemologischen Erbe der Disziplin zur biographischen Vorstellung der Autoren, von der historischen Grammatik zur philologischen Bedeutung der Oralliteratur reichen die Fragestellungen, welche die heutige Kreolistik anhand älterer Texte angehen kann.

INHALT 

Vorwort …………………………………………………………………………………………… VII

Einleitung: Vier Kreolisten – und was ihre Arbeiten für die Gegenwart
bedeuten (Philipp Krämer) …………………………………………………………………. IX

Il dialetto curassese (Emilio Teza) ……………………………………………………….. 1

Der Dialekt von Curaçao (Emilio Teza) ……………………………………………….. 11

Emilio Teza: A Curious Genius and Nomad of Philology
(Roberta Pasqua Mocerino / Markus Lenz) ………………………………………….. 23

Emilio Tezas Aufschlüsselung der Grammatik des Papiamentu
(Marco Aurelio Schaumloeffel) …………………………………………………………… 31

The Etymology of Jamaica Grammar (Thomas Russell) …………………………. 39

Thomas Russell’s Grammar of “A Stubborn and Expressive Corruption”
(Don E. Walicek) ………………………………………………………………………………. 55

Thomas Russell’s Contribution to Historical Jamaican Grammar
(Joseph T. Farquharson) ……………………………………………………………………. 67

Einige Notizen über die Kreolensprache der dänisch-westindischen Inseln
(Erik Pontoppidan) ……………………………………………………………………………. 79

Det dansk-vestindistke kreolsprog (Erik Pontoppidan) ………………………….. 89

Die dänisch-westindische Kreolsprache (Erik Pontoppidan) …………………… 99

Dr. med. Erik Pontoppidan und das Negerhollands (Peter Stein) …………….. 109

Die kreolische Oralliteratur: eine Kultur des Widerstandes?
(Magdalena von Sicard) ……………………………………………………………………… 123

Os dialectos romanicos ou neo-latinos na África, Ásia e América
(Adolpho Coelho) ………………………………………………………………………………. 143

Die romanischen oder neulateinischen Dialekte in Afrika, Asien und
Amerika (Adolpho Coelho) ………………………………………………………………… 149

Die letzten Geheimnisse Adolfo Coelhos? (Sílvio Moreira de Sousa) ………. 157

Neither raça nor povo. Adolpho Coelho’s Particular Universalism
(Philipp Krämer) ………………………………………………………………………………. 175


Source: Marco

What do Aruba, Bonaire and Curaçao have in common with Malacca? The historical and linguistic links between Papiamentu and Papiá Kristang

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Presentation – References

What do Aruba, Bonaire and Curaçao have in common with Malacca?
The historical and linguistic links between Papiamentu and Papiá Kristang

 

The Portuguese, West African and Brazilian Origins of Papiamentu

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Abstract of presentation done at the 19th Biennial Conference of the Society for Caribbean Linguistics, Nassau, The Bahamas, 30 July – 3 August 2012

Source: http://www.scl-online.net/Conferences/Past/2012_abstracts.pdf  p. 58-9

SCHAUMLOEFFEL, Marco
The University of the West Indies, Cave Hill

The Portuguese, West African and Brazilian Origins of Papiamentu

The genesis of Papiamentu (PA) still is controversial and scholars explain it through different hypotheses. Amongst others, Maduro (1966) and Munteanu (1996) classify it as a Spanish creole, since the Spaniards were the first to colonise the ABC Islands, where PA is spoken today; Martinus (1996) and Jacobs (2009) defend the Afro-Portuguese roots of PA, which would be linked to the transatlantic slave trade, whereas Goodman (1987) claims that PA would trace back its origins to a Brazilian creole brought to the Caribbean by Sephardic Jews and their servants who immigrated from Dutch Brazil to Curaçao after the recapture of Pernambuco by the Portuguese.
Differently from previous studies, the aim of this paper is to show that both the Afro-Portuguese and the Brazilian
hypothesis are complementary and necessarily must be considered when investigating the origins of PA, namely the role of the Portuguese language in Africa and the Americas during the transatlantic slave trade, the historical links between the ABC Islands and West Africa, and between Curaçao and Brazil. After a century of unsystematic rule, the Spaniards abandoned the ABC Islands and declared them islas inútiles or useless islands. In 1634, the Dutch occupied Curaçao and expelled almost all Amerindians to Venezuela. Even if the handful remaining Caiquetíos would have spoken Spanish or a Spanish creole after the Spanish absence, this fact hardly could have been decisive in the formation of PA, given the high influx of people from West Africa and Dutch Brazil.
History alone obviously cannot be used as the only evidence to support the claim that PA can trace back its origins to Portuguese and the Portuguese Creoles spoken in Europe, West Africa and Brazil, but it certainly is a component that plays a vital role to understand its origins. In this context the historic links between West Africa, Brazil and the ABC Islands will be examined. Linguistic data is naturally the most reliable evidence.
The linguistic features that PA shares with Portuguese and creoles of Portuguese basis will be thoroughly analysed in a future paper. Shared linguistic features between Fá d’Ambô (Annobonese) and PA and Brazilian Vernacular Portuguese and PA will be the object of the study. Therefore, the historical component here investigated should only be considered the first pillar of a more extensive and complete study. Both components combined, however, certainly provide a broader and more comprehensive scenario as to why it may be possible to trace back the origins of Papiamentu to Portuguese and Creoles of Portuguese origin.
The evidence shows that the history of the formation of PA cannot be comprehensively analysed and understood if vital historical links to the Portuguese language, to West Africa and Portuguese Creoles spoken in Africa, and to the immigration of Sephardic Jews and their servants from Dutch Brazil to Curaçao are ignored. As result, this paper definitively refutes any hypothesis that excludes the fundamental role of Portuguese and Portuguese creoles in the formation of PA.

The influence of the Portuguese Language in Ghana

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 A Brazilian in Ghana – I
SCHAUMLOEFFEL, Marco Aurelio. The African influence on Brazilian Music.. Daily Graphic, Accra, v. 149132, p. 14 – 14, 21 maio 2004.

The influence of the Portuguese Language in Ghana

Last year, when I arrived in Accra, I was surprised to hear some strange expressions in the English language, even though I’m a Brazilian and English is not my mother tongue. At the traffic lights I could hear people saying e.g. “dash me”. In the dictionary the meaning for the verb “dash” is “to shatter or smash”, which confused me. Searching for a solution, I arrived finally, to my surprise, at a logical explanation: it comes from the corrupted Portuguese “dás-me” (give me). The Portuguese were the first Europeans to arrive at the Gold Coast and build the Elmina Castle in 1482; they started an intensive and horrible slave trade. After that, Africa and Brazil built cultural and origin links, so that Brazil has nowadays, after Nigeria, the second biggest black population in the world. One of this links is the Tabom People, who came back to Accra in 1836, after they bought their own freedom in the Brazilian State of Bahia. Nowadays they have a Brazil House in James Town and roots to the Brazilian culture and language. Their own name Tabom comes from the Portuguese expression “Está bom” (“it’s ok” or “I’m fine”), because on their arrival, they could speak only Portuguese, so they greeted each other with “Como está?” (“How are you?”) to which the reply was “Está bom”, so that the people of Accra started to call them the Tabom People. All these facts can explain, why it is possible to find some influences of the Portuguese language in the everyday life of the Ghanaians. Another very common expression is “palaver” (gossip, to chat), that comes from “palavra” (word). “Panyar” or “panyarring” are terms from the Portuguese “apanhar” (to be beaten or to catch). In the standard English the word “fetish” comes from “feitiço”. “Sabola” is usual in Ewe and comes from the word “cebola” (onion); in Fanti people use the word “paano” for bread, what probably comes from our “pão”.

Family names of the Tabom People like Azumah, Nelson, Antônio or Faustino also show the Brazilian influence. Geographical names of Portuguese origin are very common in Ghana: Elmina (“A mina” – the mine), River Volta (“Rio Volta” – “River U-Turn”), Cape Three Points (“Cabo Três Pontas”), Cape Coast (“Cabo Corso” – in a free translation means “Cape of the Pirate”).

These few examples show us only a part of the influence of the Portuguese language in Ghana, however it is a sign that the own language changes and always displays the cultural, economic, political or social contacts that our people formerly made or is nowadays making. The Brazilian Portuguese also has a lot of influences of African languages, but this could be a theme for another article.

Marco Aurelio Schaumloeffel
Brazilian Lecturer in Ghana

P.S.: Portuguese is together with English and French one of the official languages of the ECOWAS.


Source: Marco