Papiamento y la conexión brasileña establecida mediante los judíos sefardíes

Papiamentu and the Brazilian Connection Established through the Sephardic Jews (Papiamento y la conexión brasileña establecida mediante los judíos sefardíes)

Marco A. Schaumloeffel

Article published in English in Revista Letras, Universidad Nacional Costa Rica

Schaumloeffel, M. (2020). Papiamento y la conexión brasileña establecida mediante los judíos sefardíes. LETRAS1(67), 75-89. https://doi.org/10.15359/rl.1-67.4

Links: Schaumloeffel – Papiamentu and the Brazilian Connection Established through the Sephardic Jews – Letras Feb2020

Abstract

This study examines the linguistic contact between Papiamentu and Brazilian Portuguese established when the Sephardic Jews were expelled from Dutch Brazil and some of them relocated in Curaçao. Three lexical items of PA (yaya, ‘nanny, nursemaid’; bacoba, ‘banana’; and fulabola ‘forefinger, index finger’) are analysed and put into their historical context to show that their presence in Papiamentu can be attributed to the contact between Brazil and Curaçao due to the forced migration of the Sephardic Jews and their servants.

Resumen

El estudio examina el contacto lingüístico entre el papiamento y el portugués brasileño, establecido cuando los judíos sefardíes fueron expulsados del Brasil Holandés y algunos se trasladaron a la isla Curazao. Tres unidades lexicales del papiamento (yaya, ‘niñera, niñera’; bacoba, ‘banana’; y fulabola, ‘dedo índice) se analizan y ponen en su contexto histórico para mostrar que su presencia en papiamento es atribuible al contacto entre Brasil y Curazao, con la forzada migración de los judíos sefardíes y sus criados.

Keywords: Papiamentu, Brazilian Portuguese, origins of Papiamentu, Sephardic Jew

Palabras clave: papiamento, portugués brasileño, orígenes del papiamento, judíos sefardíes

Citas

Buarque de Holanda Ferreira, Aurélio. Novo dicionário eletrônico da língua portuguesa. Rio de Janeiro: Nova Fronteira, 2009.

Câmara Cascudo, Luís da. Dicionário do folclore brasileiro. Rio de Janeiro: Ediouro, 2003. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/335622.

Duarte, Rojane. “A origem e o significado de iaiá.” Ciberdúvidas da língua portuguesa, 2007, 30 Nov 2017, <https://ciberduvidas.iscte-iul.pt/consultorio/perguntas/a-origem-e-o-significado-de-iaia/20689>.

Goodman, Morris. The Portuguese Element in the American Creoles. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1987.

Holm, John. An Introduction to Pidgins and Creoles. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139164153.

Houaiss, Antônio. Dicionário eletrônico Houaiss da língua portuguesa. 3.0. Rio de Janeiro: Objetiva, 2009. DOI: https://doi.org/10.11606/d.8.2009.tde-30112009-151358

Jacobs, Bart. “The Upper Guinea Origins of Papiamentu Linguistic and Historical Evidence.” Diachronica 26, 3 (2009). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1075/dia.26.3.02jac.

Jacobs, Bart. Origins of a Creole: The History of Papiamentu and its African Ties. Berlin: De Gruyter, 2012. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/9781614511076.

Johnen, Thomas. “Frederiks, Bernardus Th. J. (2009 [1859]): Woordenlijst der in der landstaal van Curaçao meest gebruikelijke woorden; alphabetisch neu geordnet mit dem heutigen Sprachstand verglichen und etymologisiert von Johannes Kramer, Hamburg: Buske (Kreolische Bibliothek; 22),” Lusorama 97-98 (2014): 254-265.

Johnen, Thomas. Bakoba pa makaku: Sobre a problemática dos africanismos na lexicografia do Papiamentu (2014), manuscript.

Karner, Frances P. The Sephardics of Curacao: A Study of Socio-Cultural Patterns in Flux. Assen: Van Gorcum, 1969.

Kouwenberg, Silvia. “Papiamentu Structure Dataset,” Atlas of Pidgin and Creole Language Structures Online. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, 29 Jan 2017, <http://apics-online.info/contributions/47>.

Kramer, Johannes. Kleines etymologisches Wörterbuch Papiamento-Deutsch Deutsch-Papiamento. Hamburg: Buske, 2013.

Martinus, Frank. The Kiss of a Slave: Papiamentu’s West-African Connections. Amsterdam: Universiteit van Amsterdam, 2004.

Pessoa de Castro, Yeda. Falares africanos na Bahia: Um vocabulário afro-brasileiro. Rio de Janeiro: Topbooks, 2001.

Ratzlaff, Betty. Papiamentu/Ingles dikshonario, English/Papiamentu Dictionary. Kralendijk: TWR Dictionary Foundation/Science Press, 1995.

Rossel, Gerda. Taxonomic-Linguistic Study of Plantain in Africa. Leiden: Research School CNWS, 1998.

Rupert, Linda M. Creolization and Contraband: Curaçao in the Early Modern Atlantic World. Athens, Georgia: University of Georgia Press, 2012. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/ tla.12005_4.

Salles, Vicente. Vocabulário crioulo: contribuição do negro ao falar regional amazônico. Belém: Instituto de Artes do Pará, 2003.

Van Putte, Florimon. “Dede Pikina, de Braziliaanse Connectie En de Yaya,” Kristòf XII, 4 (2003).

Mea deefe unsere Kultur net sterwe losse

Brasilianisches Hunsrückisch

Mea deefe unsere Kultur net sterwe losse

Marco Aurelio Schaumloeffel

Texto selecionado no I Concurso Literário de Poemas e Contos em Hunsrückisch e publicado no livro “Hunsrückisch em Prosa e Verso”, páginas 93-96.

Hunsrückisch em prosa & verso: textos do Concurso Literário de Poemas e Contos em Hunsrückisch 2017 . Organizadores, Cleo V. Altenhofen … [et al.]. Porto Alegre: Instituto de Letras – UFRGS, 2018.

ISBN on-line: 978-85-64522-38-1

 

Hier lese ich meinen Text in meiner Muttersprache brasilianisches Hunsrückisch vor (ohne mir großen Sorgen über die Audioqualität zu machen, nur um die Aussprache des Hunsrückischen vom Speckhof/Boa Vista do Herval, Landkreis Santa Maria do Herval, im Bundesland Rio Grande do Sul, Südbrasilien, zu registrieren). Eine dreisprachige Version des Textes finden Sie weiter unten.

Aqui o vídeo-áudio do meu texto (sem grande preocupação com qualidade de áudio profissional, apenas para registrar a pronúncia do Hunsrückisch da comunidade de Speckhof/Boa Vista do Herval, município de Santa Maria do Herval – RS).

Aqui está o texto trilíngue /  Der Dreisprachiger Text ist hier:

Mea deefe unsere Kultur net sterwe losse – Hunsrückisch, Hochdeutsch,  Português

 

O contato linguístico no Sul do Brasil – o caso do Hunsrückisch

O contato linguístico no Sul do Brasil – o caso do Hunsrückisch

Marco Aurelio Schaumloeffel

1) Palestra de encerramento “O contato linguístico no Sul do Brasil – o caso do Hunsrückisch” do VIII Encontro Internacional do Grupo de Estudos de Línguas em Contato – GELIC, realizado em Belém/PA, de 20 a 22 de novembro de 2019, na Universidade do Estado do Pará – UEPA.

Apresentação PowerPoint: solicite por e-mail.

2) Participação em mesa redonda: Constituição de corpora e a pesquisa sobre o contato linguístico em variedades de fala: questões teóricas e metodológicas, com Bruno Rocha (UFMG), Edenize Ponzo Peres (UFES), Marco Aurélio Schaumloeffel (UWI)

Website do evento: https://www.even3.com.br/viiigelic/ 

Syntactic Interferences of Portuguese in Brazilian Hunsrückisch

Syntactic Interferences of Portuguese in Brazilian Hunsrückisch

Marco Aurelio Schaumloeffel

Presentation at the 19th Annual Conference of the Association of Portuguese and Spanish-Lexified Creoles & the Summer Conference of the Society for Pidgin and Creole Linguistics
 
17-19 June 2019
 
Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal

PowerPoint of presentation: request by e-mail

 

Abstract

Syntactic Interferences of Portuguese in Brazilian Hunsrückisch

Marco Aurelio Schaumloeffel
Brazilian Studies, The University of the West Indies, Cave Hill Campus, Barbados

Brazilian Hunsrückisch (HR) is the most widely spoken variety of German in Brazil. German immigration to Brazil started in 1824 and lasted for over a century. Today, it is estimated that there are between 1.2 million Altenhofen 2017) and 3 million (Ethnologue 2018) native speakers of the Brazilian variety of Hunsrückisch. The almost 200-year-old contact situation
with Brazilian Portuguese (PT) created a favourable environment for linguistic interferences (cf. Weinreich 1953; Juhász 1980) in both languages. As result, it is common to find grammatical, lexical and semantic interferences of PT in the varieties of HR (cf. Sambaquy-
Wallner 1998; Altenhofen 1996; Damke 1997, among others). The focus of this paper is to verify the existence of syntactic interferences of PT in HR and to do an unprecedented analysis of these interferences in the HR variety spoken in the community of Boa Vista do Herval, also known as Speckhof in HR, located in the mountainous region of the Northeast of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil. Data collected from 36 speakers selected according to sociolinguistic criteria based on age, gender, level of schooling, religion and income were transcribed and analysed. The main syntactic interference found in the data examined in this paper is the calquing of the verb position from the PT syntactic structure, i.e., the change for some speakers in the position of the verb in HR from a typical HR behaviour, also in line with standard German, to a verb position typical for PT. Sentences presenting this change will be analysed, showing that there effectively are syntactic interferences of PT in the HR variety spoken in Speckhof.

 

Papiamentu and the Brazilian connection established through the Sephardic Jews

Papiamentu and the Brazilian connection established through the Sephardic Jews

Marco Aurelio Schaumloeffel
Presentation at the 22nd Biennial Conference of the The Society for Caribbean Linguistics (SCL)
Heredia/Limón, Costa Rica 5th-12th August 2018
Conference Programme
Conference website

Abstract

Papiamentu and the Brazilian connection established through the Sephardic Jews

A direct historical connection between Curaçao and Brazil was established due to the resettlement of Sephardic Jews, their assistants, and their free and enslaved African servants from Dutch Brazil to the Caribbean after the Dutch were expelled by the Portuguese from the Northeast of Brazil. Portuguese-speaking Jews from Brazil began to arrive in Curaçao in 1659. This period coincides with the period between 1634 and 1677, considered crucial for the formation of Papiamentu (Jacobs, The Upper Guinea origins of Papiamentu Linguistic and historical evidence 353). Portuguese was one of the languages spoken by the Sephardi in Curaçao. From the beginning, the Jewish congregation in Curaçao even used Portuguese for their religious services; they only changed to Spanish in the nineteenth century (Holm, An Introduction to Pidgins and Creoles 78). The historical facts involving the dislocation of people from Pernambuco, Brazil to Curaçao naturally lead to the assumption of a possible influence of these Portuguese-speaking Sephardic Jews and their Afro-Brazilian servants in the formation of Papiamentu (PA). Although the current body of research in PA completely discards the hypothesis of a Brazilian origin of Papiamentu, as postulated in 1987 by Goodman (The Portuguese element in the American Creoles), the intention of this presentation is to show that there are effective links between these two areas and that there probably was some secondary degree of influence from Brazilian Portuguese during the formation process of PA. Even if they existed, it certainly would be difficult to prove that some of the PA features present in the deeper layers of the language could be specifically attributed to an influence from Brazilian Portuguese or the Portuguese spoken by the Sephardi, as it probably would be difficult to clearly set them apart from the features incorporated into PA that are also present in other Portuguese variants and in West African Portuguese-based creoles. However, specific lexical items that will be discussed in this presentation show that their transfer to PA may have happened because of the dislocation of Sephardic Jews and their servants from Brazil to Curaçao. Traces of at least one of those lexical items can also be found in French Guiana and in Suriname, the final destination for some of those expelled from Brazil or the temporary destination as place of passage for others that later headed to Curaçao. Some lexical items, including PA yaya ‘nanny, nursemaid’, bacoba ‘banana’ and fulabola ‘forefinger, index finger’, will be analysed to show that their presence in PA can probably be specifically attributed to the historical connection created between Brazil and Curaçao due to the forced migration of the Sephardic Jews and their servants.

The multifunctionality of Papiamentu pa and its similarities with Vernacular Brazilian Portuguese

The multifunctionality of Papiamentu pa and its similarities with Vernacular Brazilian Portuguese

Marco A. Schaumloeffel

Article published in the Journal of Portuguese and Spanish Lexically-based Creoles / Revista de Crioulos de Base Lexical Portuguesa e Espanhola 7 (2017), pp. 15-33. ISSN 1646-7000. Association of Portuguese- and Spanish-Lexified Creoles/Associação de Crioulos de Base Lexical Portuguesa e Espanhola (ACBLPE). Faculdade de Letras da Universidade de Lisboa. Released in March 2018.

Link: http://www.acblpe.com/revista/volume-7-2017/the-multifunctionality-of-papiamentu-pa-and-its-similarities-with-vernacular-brazilian-portuguese

Here you can also download the pdf file.

Abstract

The Papiamentu (PA) element pa covers a broad array of functions, operating as a preposition, a mood marker and a complementiser. Lefebvre and Therrien (2007) compare the functions of PA pa to those of para in standard Portuguese (PT), noting that the 15 functions of pa they identify do not match up with the significantly fewer functions of PT para. In this study, it is argued that the functions claimed by Lefebvre and Therrien (2007) to be shared by PA pa and PT para are not without questions. Moreover, we offer a comparison between PA pa and pra in Vernacular Brazilian Portuguese (VBP), showing that these two elements share all 15 functions identified by Lefebvre and Therrien (2007). Finally, we offer an account as to why this sharp discrepancy exists between the results of the PA pa – PT para.

Keywords: Papiamentu, Vernacular Brazilian Portuguese, Multifunctionality of Papiamentu pa, Origins of Papiamentu

Questionamentos e Discussões Essenciais Acerca de um Possível Sistema de Escrita para o Hunsrückisch Brasileiro

Questionamentos e Discussões Essenciais Acerca de um Possível Sistema de Escrita para o Hunsrückisch Brasileiro

Marco Aurelio Schaumloeffel

 

Artigo publicado na revista Trama, v. 14, n. 31 (2018), p. 109-121, e-ISSN 1981-4674

 

Link para a publicação:

http://e-revista.unioeste.br/index.php/trama/article/view/17600/12408

Artigo em arquivo PDF para download

Errata:  a formatação do artigo provavelmente causou uma mistura/um corte nas palavras na seguinte passagem:

“Assim, há duas formas de escrita e algumas diferenças no Papiamentu, conforme o ilustrado através dos exemplos de palavras apresentadas abaixo:
Curaçao e Bonaire: étiko, kas, piská, Papiamentu, kombinashon, lèternan, ferfdó
Aruba: etico, cas, pisca, Papiamento, combinacion, letranan, pintor
Português: ético, casa, peixe, Papiamentu(o), combinação, cartas, pintor”

Original do artigo submetido pode ser lido aqui.

RESUMO: O objetivo deste trabalho é discutir basilarmente por que e se o Hunsrückisch brasileiro, a língua falada por grande parte dos descendentes de alemães no Brasil, deve ter um sistema de escrita estabelecido. Com base nestas questões, as vantagens e desvantagens de um eventual estabelecimento de um sistema de escrita serão analisados e ponderações feitas sobre o que este sistema, no contexto da complexidade e da presença de muitas variedades, imprescindivelmente deve conter e levar em conta. Serão trazidos exemplos de dois contextos completamente diferentes, nomeadamente da Suíça e das Ilhas ABC (Aruba, Bonaire e Curaçao, no Caribe), onde são falados, respectivamente, o Alemão suíço e o Papiamentu, com o propósito de verificar como estes casos podem apontar para possíveis caminhos e soluções para estas questões. Além disso, duas propostas já existentes de sistemas de escrita para o Hunsrückisch brasileiro serão analisadas e testadas quanto a sua funcionalidade e aplicabilidade.

 PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Hunsrückisch brasileiro, Alemão no Brasil, sistema de escrita, ortografia, variedades linguísticas

 

ABSTRACT: The objective of this article is to fundamentally discuss why and if Brazilian Hunsrückisch, the language spoken by the majority of the German descendants in Brazil, should have an established writing system. Based on these questions, the advantages and disadvantages of a prospective establishment of a writing system will be analysed and considerations will be made about what this system should necessarily contain and regard. Examples from two completely different contexts will be presented, namely from Switzerland and the ABC Islands (Aruba, Bonaire and Curaçao in the Caribbean) where Swiss German and Papiamentu are respectively spoken, in order to verify how those cases can point to possible ways and solutions to these questions. Apart from that, two already existing proposals of writing systems for Brazilian Hunsrückisch will be analysed and tested for their functionality and applicability.  

 KEYWORDS: Brazilian Hunsrückisch, German in Brazil, writing system, orthography, linguistic varieties

Tabom: O Brasil longe do Brasil – Tabom: Brazil away from Brazil

Entrevista concedida à revista Atlântico / Interview for Atlantico Magazine

Instituto Brasil África / Brazil Africa Institute

Tabom: O Brasil longe do Brasil – Tabom: Brazil away from Brazil. Atlantico. Year 3. Number 11. July 2017. Pages 46-50. ISSN 2447-8016. Fortaleza, Brazil.

 

Link para todas as revistas/Link to all magazines: https://ibraf.org/atlantico-magazine/

Link para esta edição / Link to this edition: https://ibraf.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/atlantico11.pdf

 

 

 

Considerations on the reciprocity and reflexivity in Papiamentu


Considerations on the reciprocity and reflexivity in Papiamentu

Captura de tela inteira 29072016 164536-001

Marco Aurelio Schaumloeffel
Presentation at the 21st Biennial Conference of the The Society for Caribbean Linguistics (SCL)
Kingston, Jamaica 1st-6th August 2016
Conference Programme
Conference website
References

Abstract

Considerations on the reciprocity and reflexivity in Papiamentu

The Ibero-Romance clitic pronouns were not incorporated into Papiamentu (PA). Instead, PA has today several different possibilities to form reflexives, which replaced the Ibero-Romance clitics:  paña ‘cloth’, kurpa ‘body’, null reflexive, possessive + kurpa, object pronoun, object pronoun + mes < Portuguese mesmo ‘self’, and possessive pronoun + mes (cf. Muysken 1993:286). At least two other strategies of reflexivisation or quasi-reflexivisation are not discussed by Muysken: the use of kabes ‘head’ and of the reciprocal otro ‘other’. While some of those types of reflexives are a common strategy of reflexivisation in several creole languages (Muysken and Smith 1994:271-288), some of them can also be found in other Portuguese-based creoles. Therefore, this might indicate that there is a linguistic link between PA and those creoles when it comes to the realisation of this category of function words.

The aim of this presentation is to ponder on how specifically the reflexives with kurpa, possessive + kurpa, kabes, otro and mes are realised in PA and compare them to their equivalents in other Portuguese and Spanish-based creoles in order to establish if there are linguistic ties that connect PA to them when it comes to reflexivity.

Reflexives with kurpa and possessive + kurpa are also found in the Guinea Bissau and Casamance Portuguese creoles (GBC), which in turn are usually correlated with a Kwa / Bantu substrate (Jacobs 2012:130-131), but are also present in Asian creoles like Papiá Kristang (PK) and Zamboangueño (Holm 2000:225). Reflexives or quasi-reflexives can also be formed with PA kabes, which also encounters equivalents in GBC, Cape Verdean Portuguese-based creoles and PK. Another shared feature of PA with GBC and PK is the use of ‘other’ to express reciprocity, whereas a similar syntax for PA mes can also be found in the Cape Verdean creole of São Vicente, in Principense and in PK.

 

Interestingly, the analysis of the available data always points towards the same direction, since the current realisation of reflexivity in PA seems to be etymologically, and sometimes even through its grammatical functions, linked to other Portuguese-based creoles and to Portuguese, rather than to Spanish or Spanish-based creoles. Holm raised two possibilities for the presence of a reflexive with ‘body’ in Asian creoles, which also can be extended to the other reflexives mentioned above: that they either spread by diffusion or arose independently through the influence of other substrate languages (2000:225). Based on their similar realisation, especially in PK, the former rather seems to be the case.

Why do Papiamento and a Creole Language Spoken in Malaysia have so many similarities?

Why do Papiamento and a Creole Language Spoken in Malaysia have so many similarities?

Two presentations at the Biblioteca Nacional Aruba, Oranjestad, Aruba

Lecture in the series “Lifelong Learninig – Academic Lectures” – May, 17 2016

Diario, 09 May 2016, p. 44

IMG-20160509-WA0000

Invitation

IMG-20160510-WA0002

Diario, 2 June 2016, p. 23

IMG-20160603-WA0000

Some pictures of the two events:

2016-05-20 01.43.35 2016-05-22 14.33.24
2016-05-20 01.43.42 2016-05-22 14.32.46
2016-05-22 14.35.54 2016-05-22 14.33.46
2016-05-22 14.33.09

Abstract

Why do Papiamento and a Creole Language Spoken in Malaysia have so many similarities?

The aim of this presentation is to make relevant considerations on the origin of Papiamento (PA). The discussion on the origins of PA still is object of controversy. Some scholars classify it as a creole language of Spanish origins and others as a creole of Portuguese origins. Recent historical and linguistic evidence suggests that PA owes its origins to the West African Portuguese creoles (cf. Jacobs, Origins of a Creole 2012).

In this presentation, the author provides further evidence in favour of the Portuguese origins of PA by doing an investigation on the historical and linguistic links existing between PA and Papiá Kristang (PK). Historical links are important, but linguistic data is the most reliable evidence of possible genetic ties between creoles. It may seem strange to compare a creole language that developed in Southeast Asia with a creole spoken in former Dutch colonies in the Caribbean, since they are worlds apart. PK, a Portuguese creole spoken in Malacca, Malaysia, is not directly linked to the West African Portuguese creoles like PA, but is a Portuguese creole undoubtedly unrelated to Spanish. This fact turns PK into an interesting tool of comparison to verify possible similarities and correspondences in the PA and the PK grammatical categories, and to establish if PA carries basic Portuguese creole features. The analysis is based on linguistic data from grammars, descriptions and texts in PA and in PK. The focus are grammatical similarities and correspondences that are observed in the structure of both creoles, and the implications these have to determine a possible common origin.

To achieve this objective, a comparison of important linguistic features in the two languages will be made. The evidence suggests that the origins of PA cannot be completely analysed and understood if vital historical and linguistic links to the Portuguese language are ignored. It remains open to discussion whether these ties were solely formed via West Africa and the Portuguese creoles spoken there or not. However, this presentation intends to discard any hypothesis that excludes the fundamental role Portuguese and Portuguese creoles played in the formation of PA.